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Chapter 4B. Solutions. Solutions. Homogeneous mixture Solvent – substance present in the largest amount Solute – substance present in the smallest amount Aqueous solution – solutions with water as the solvent. Types of Solutions. Solubility.

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chapter 4b

Chapter 4B

Solutions

solutions
Solutions

Homogeneous mixture

  • Solvent – substance present in the largest amount
  • Solute – substance present in the smallest amount

Aqueous solution – solutions with water as the solvent.

solubility
Solubility

The maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a constant temperature.

Factors that affect rate of Solubility (increase the rate of dissolving).

  • Pressure
  • Temperature
  • Polarity
solubility1
Solubility

Solutions can be classified into groups by how much solute is in solution.

  • Saturated – contains as much solute as the solvent can hold at a given temperature.
  • Unsaturated – less the maximum amount of solvent at a given temperature.
  • Supersaturated – contains more solute than the solvent can hold at a given temperature.
solution by mass percent
Solution by Mass Percent

Solutions are described by mass percent

solutions by mass percent
Solutions by Mass Percent

A solution is prepared by mixing 2.50 grams of calcium chloride with 50.0 grams of water. Calculate the mass percent of calcium chloride in this solution.

solutions by mass percent1
Solutions by Mass Percent

A 75.0 gram sample of a solution is known to contain 23.8 grams of glucose. Calculate the mass percent of glucose in this solution.

solutions by mass percent2
Solutions by Mass Percent

Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid in water and typically contains 5.00% acetic acid by mass. Calculate the mass of acetic acid in a 250.0 gram sample of vinegar.

solutions by mass percent3
Solutions by Mass Percent

Concentrated hydrochloric acid solution contains 37.2 % by mass HCl. What mass of HCl is contained in 35.5 grams of concentrated HCl.

molarity
Molarity

Molarity – concentration of a solution

molarity1
Molarity

Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 15.6 gram of solid KBr in enough water to make 1.25 L of solution.

molarity2
Molarity

Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 2.80 grams of solid NaCl in enough water to make a 135 ml of solution

molarity3
Molarity

What mass of NaNO3 is required to make 2.50 Liter of a 0.150 M solution of NaNO3?

molarity4
Molarity

What mass of (NH4)2SO4 is required to make 1.25 liter of 0.250 M solution of (NH4)2SO4?

molarity ion concentration
Molarity-Ion Concentration

Give the concentrations of all ions in each of the following solutions

  • 1.20 M Na2SO4
  • 0.750 M K2CrO4
molarity ion concentration1
Molarity-Ion Concentration

How many moles of Na+ ions are present in 42.0 ml of a 0.350 M NaCl solution?

molarity ion concentration2
Molarity-Ion Concentration

How many moles of Na+ ions are present in 42.0 ml of a 0.350 M of Na3PO4 solution?

dilutions
Dilutions

Process of adding more solvent to a solution.

M1=molarity before dilution

V1=volume before dilution

M2=molarity after dilution

V1=volume after dilution

dilution
Dilution

What volume of 19 M NaOH must be used to prepare a 1.0 Liter of a 0.15 M NaOH solution?

dilution1
Dilution

What volume of water is needed to prepare 500.0 ml of a 0.250 M Ca(NO3)2 solution from a 5.00 M solution of Ca(NO3)2?

titrations
Titrations

Combining a solution of know concentration with a solution of unknown concentration to determine the unknown.

  • Equivalence point – when the reactants are equal molar.
  • Indicator – dyes used in titrations to indicate equivalence point.
titrations1
Titrations
  • What volume of 0.115 M HCO4 solution is needed to neutralize 50.00 ml of 0.0875 M NaOH?
  • 15.00 ml of acetic acid is titrated with 0.500 M NaOH. It takes 22.59 ml of NaOH. What is the molarity of the acetic acid?
  • How many grams of AgBr are formed when 35.5 ml of 0.184 M AgNO3 are mixed with an excess of aqueous hydrobromic acid?