Chapter 4B. Solutions. Solutions. Homogeneous mixture Solvent – substance present in the largest amount Solute – substance present in the smallest amount Aqueous solution – solutions with water as the solvent. Types of Solutions. Solubility.
Aqueous solution – solutions with water as the solvent.
The maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a constant temperature.
Factors that affect rate of Solubility (increase the rate of dissolving).
Solutions can be classified into groups by how much solute is in solution.
Solutions are described by mass percent
A solution is prepared by mixing 2.50 grams of calcium chloride with 50.0 grams of water. Calculate the mass percent of calcium chloride in this solution.
A 75.0 gram sample of a solution is known to contain 23.8 grams of glucose. Calculate the mass percent of glucose in this solution.
Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid in water and typically contains 5.00% acetic acid by mass. Calculate the mass of acetic acid in a 250.0 gram sample of vinegar.
Concentrated hydrochloric acid solution contains 37.2 % by mass HCl. What mass of HCl is contained in 35.5 grams of concentrated HCl.
Molarity – concentration of a solution
Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 15.6 gram of solid KBr in enough water to make 1.25 L of solution.
Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 2.80 grams of solid NaCl in enough water to make a 135 ml of solution
What mass of NaNO3 is required to make 2.50 Liter of a 0.150 M solution of NaNO3?
What mass of (NH4)2SO4 is required to make 1.25 liter of 0.250 M solution of (NH4)2SO4?
Give the concentrations of all ions in each of the following solutions
How many moles of Na+ ions are present in 42.0 ml of a 0.350 M NaCl solution?
How many moles of Na+ ions are present in 42.0 ml of a 0.350 M of Na3PO4 solution?
Process of adding more solvent to a solution.
M1=molarity before dilution
V1=volume before dilution
M2=molarity after dilution
V1=volume after dilution
What volume of 19 M NaOH must be used to prepare a 1.0 Liter of a 0.15 M NaOH solution?
What volume of water is needed to prepare 500.0 ml of a 0.250 M Ca(NO3)2 solution from a 5.00 M solution of Ca(NO3)2?
Combining a solution of know concentration with a solution of unknown concentration to determine the unknown.