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IT 347: Chapter 3 Transport Layer. Instructor: Christopher Cole Some slides taken from Kurose & Ross book. Network layer: logical communication between hosts Transport layer: logical communication between processes end-to-end only Routers, etc. don’t read segments

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It 347 chapter 3 transport layer

IT 347: Chapter 3Transport Layer

Instructor: Christopher Cole

Some slides taken from Kurose & Ross book

  • Network layer: logical communication between hosts

  • Transport layer: logical communication between processes

    • end-to-end only

    • Routers, etc. don’t read segments

  • Weird analogy of 2 families with Bill and Ann

  • IP provides a best-effort delivery service

    • No guarantees!

    • unreliable

  • Most fundamentally: extend host-to-host delivery to process-to-process delivery

Internet transport layer protocols

reliable, in-order delivery (TCP)

congestion control

flow control

connection setup

unreliable, unordered delivery: UDP

no-frills extension of “best-effort” IP

services not available:

delay guarantees

bandwidth guarantees




data link





data link



data link



data link



data link



data link



data link



data link


logical end-end transport

Internet transport-layer protocols

Transport Layer


  • Everybody is on sockets

    • Multiplexing: passing segments to network layer

    • Demultiplexing: taking network layer and distributing to sockets

    • How is it done?

      • What are the 2 things that applications need to talk to each other? Source port/IP and destination port/IP

    • Server side usually specifically names a port

    • Client side lets the transport layer automatically assign a port

More multiplexing
More multiplexing

  • UDP: two-tuple

    • Identified by destination IP address and port number

    • If two UDP segments have difference source IP addresses and/or port numbers, but the same destination IP and port number, they will be directed to the same destination process via the same socket

  • TCP: four-tuple

    • Identified by source IP/port and destination IP/port

    • Two segments with difference source info, but the same destination info, will be directed to different sockets

    • TCP keeps the port open as a “welcoming socket”

      • Server process creates new socket when connection is created

      • One server can have many sockets open at a time

  • Web server

    • Spawns a new thread for each connection (How does it know which collection belongs to who? Source port & IP)

    • Threads are like lightweight subprocesses

    • Many threads for one process


  • A transport layer protocol must: provide multiplexing/demultiplexing

    • That’s all UDP does besides some light error checking

    • You’re practically talking directly to IP

  • UDP process

    • Take the message from the application

    • Add source and destination port number fields

    • Add length & checksum fields

    • Send the segment to layer 3

  • Connectionless (no handshaking)

    • Why is DNS using UDP?

Advantages of udp
Advantages of UDP

  • Finer application control

    • Just spit the bits onto the wire. No congestion control, flow control, etc.

  • Connectionless

    • No extra RTT delay

    • Doesn’t create buffers, so a UDP server can take more clients than a TCP server

  • Small packet overhead

    • TCP overhead = 20 bytes

    • UDP overhead = 8 bytes

The udp controversy
The UDP Controversy

  • UDP doesn’t play nice

    • No congestion control

  • Say UDP packets flood the lines…

    • Causes routers to get more congested

    • TCP sees this, and slows down packet sending

    • UDP doesn’t

  • Only UDP packets end up getting sent

Udp user datagram protocol rfc 768

“no frills,” “bare bones” Internet transport protocol

“best effort” service, UDP segments may be:


delivered out of order to app


no handshaking between UDP sender, receiver

each UDP segment handled independently of others

Why is there a UDP?

no connection establishment (which can add delay)

simple: no connection state at sender, receiver

small segment header

no congestion control: UDP can blast away as fast as desired

UDP: User Datagram Protocol [RFC 768]

Transport Layer

Udp more

often used for streaming multimedia apps protocol

loss tolerant

rate sensitive

other UDP uses



reliable transfer over UDP: add reliability at application layer

application-specific error recovery!

UDP: more

32 bits

source port #

dest port #

Length, in

bytes of UDP









UDP segment format

Transport Layer

Udp checksum

Sender: protocol

treat segment contents as sequence of 16-bit integers

checksum: addition (1’s complement sum) of segment contents

sender puts checksum value into UDP checksum field


compute checksum of received segment

check if computed checksum equals checksum field value:

NO - error detected

YES - no error detected.

Throw the bit away OR

Pass it on with a warning

UDP checksum

Goal: detect “errors” (e.g., flipped bits) in transmitted segment

Transport Layer

Internet checksum example
Internet Checksum Example protocol

  • Note

    • When adding numbers, a carryout from the most significant bit needs to be added to the result

  • Example: add two 16-bit integers

1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1

1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0

1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1




Transport Layer

Reliable data transfer
Reliable Data Transfer protocol

  • See book for state machines and full explanations

  • Case 1: underlying channel completely reliable

    • Just have a sender and receiver.

  • Case 2: bit errors (but no packet loss) protocol

    • How do you know?

      • Receiver has to acknowledge (ACK) or negative (NAK)

      • A NAK makes the sender resend the packet

      • NAK based on UDP checksum (talk about timers later)

    • Reliable transfer based on retransmission = ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest) protocol

    • 3 capabilities: Error detection, receiver feedback, retransmission

    • Stop and wait protocol

  • What if the ACK or NAK packet is corrupted? protocol

    • Just resend the old packet.

      • Duplicate packets: But how does the receiver know it is the same packet and not the next one?

      • Add a sequence number!

  • Do we really need a NAK?

    • Just ACK the last packet that was received.

  • Case 3: bit errors and packet loss protocol

    • What if a packet gets lost?

      • Set a timer on each packet sent. When the timer runs out, send the packet again.

      • Can we handle duplicate packets?

    • How long?

      • At least as long as a RTT

Performance of rdt3 0

rdt3.0 works, but performance stinks protocol

ex: 1 Gbps link, 15 ms prop. delay, 8000 bit packet:

Performance of rdt3.0

  • U sender: utilization – fraction of time sender busy sending

  • 1KB pkt every 30 msec -> 33kB/sec (264 kbps) thruput over 1 Gbps link

  • network protocol limits use of physical resources!

Transport Layer

  • Pipelining will fix it! protocol

    • Make sure your sequence numbers are large enough

    • Buffering packets

      • Sender buffers packets that have been transmitted but not yet acknowledged

      • Receiver buffers correctly received packets

      • Two basic approaches: Go-Back-N and selective repeat

Pipelined protocols

Pipelining: protocol sender allows multiple, “in-flight”, yet-to-be-acknowledged pkts

range of sequence numbers must be increased

buffering at sender and/or receiver

Two generic forms of pipelined protocols: go-Back-N, selective repeat

Pipelined protocols

Transport Layer

Go back n sliding window
Go-Back-N (sliding window) protocol


  • k-bit seq # in pkt header

  • “window” of up to N, consecutive unACKed pkts allowed

  • ACK(n): ACKs all pkts up to, including seq # n - “cumulative ACK”

    • may receive duplicate ACKs (see receiver)

  • timer for each in-flight pkt

  • timeout(n): retransmit pkt n and all higher seq # pkts in window

Transport Layer

ACK-only: always send ACK for correctly-received protocolpkt with highest in-orderseq #

  • may generate duplicate ACKs

  • need only remember expectedseqnum

  • out-of-order pkt:

    • discard (don’t buffer) -> no receiver buffering!

    • Re-ACK pkt with highest in-order seq #

  • Problems with GBN?

    • It can spit out a lot of needless packets onto the wire.

      • A single error will really do some damage. A wire with lots of errors? Lots of needless duplicate packets

  • Selective repeat

    receiver protocolindividually acknowledges all correctly received pkts

    buffers pkts, as needed, for eventual in-order delivery to upper layer

    sender only resends pkts for which ACK not received

    sender timer for each unACKedpkt

    sender window

    N consecutive seq #’s

    again limits seq #s of sent, unACKedpkts

    The sender and receiver window will not always coincide!

    If your sequence numbers aren’t big enough, you won’t know which is which

    Selective Repeat

    Transport Layer

    Selective repeat1

    data from above : protocol

    if next available seq # in window, send pkt


    resend pkt n, restart timer

    ACK(n) in [sendbase,sendbase+N]:

    mark pkt n as received

    if n smallest unACKed pkt, advance window base to next unACKed seq #



    Selective repeat

    pkt n in [rcvbase, rcvbase+N-1]

    • send ACK(n)

    • out-of-order: buffer

    • in-order: deliver (also deliver buffered, in-order pkts), advance window to next not-yet-received pkt

      pkt n in [rcvbase-N,rcvbase-1]

    • ACK(n)


    • ignore

    Transport Layer

    Pipelining protocols summary

    Go-back-N: overview protocol

    sender: up to N unACKedpkts in pipeline

    receiver: only sends cumulative ACKs

    doesn’t ACK pkt if there’s a gap

    sender: has timer for oldest unACKedpkt

    if timer expires: retransmit all unACKed packets

    Selective Repeat: overview

    sender: up to N unACKed packets in pipeline

    receiver: ACKs individual pkts

    sender: maintains timer for each unACKed pkt

    if timer expires: retransmit only unACKed packet

    Pipelining Protocols - Summary

    Transport Layer

    Reliable data transfer mechanisms
    Reliable Data Transfer Mechanisms protocol

    • See table p. 242

      • Checksum

      • Timer

      • Sequence number

      • Acknowledgement

      • Negative acknowledgement

      • Window, pipelining

    TCP protocol

    • Read 3.5 to the end

    • Point to point

      • Single sender, single receiver

      • Multicasting (4.7) will not work with TCP

    • 3 way handshake

      • SYN

      • SYN-ACK

      • ACK

    • TCP sets aside a send buffer – where the application message data gets put

    • TCP takes chunks of data from this buffer and sends segments

    Vocabulary protocol

    • RTT = Round Trip Time

    • MSS = Maximum segment size

      • Maximum amount of data that TCP can grab and place into a segment

      • This is application layer data – does not include TCP headers, etc.

    • MTU = Maximum transmission unit

      • The largest link-layer frame that can be sent by the local sending host

      • This will have a lot of bearing on the MSS

      • Common values: 1,460, 536, and 512 bytes

    Tcp overview rfcs 793 1122 1323 2018 2581

    full duplex data: protocol

    bi-directional data flow in same connection

    MSS: maximum segment size


    handshaking (exchange of control msgs) init’s sender, receiver state before data exchange

    flow controlled:

    sender will not overwhelm receiver


    one sender, one receiver

    reliable, in-order byte steam:

    no “message boundaries”


    TCP congestion and flow control set window size

    send & receive buffers

    TCP: OverviewRFCs: 793, 1122, 1323, 2018, 2581

    Transport Layer

    Tcp segment structure

    32 bits protocol

    source port #

    dest port #

    sequence number

    acknowledgement number





    Receive window








    Urg data pointer

    Options (variable length)



    (variable length)

    TCP segment structure

    URG: urgent data

    (generally not used)


    by bytes

    of data

    (not segments!)

    ACK: ACK #


    PSH: push data now

    (generally not used)

    # bytes

    rcvr willing

    to accept

    RST, SYN, FIN:

    connection estab

    (setup, teardown




    (as in UDP)

    Transport Layer

    Tcp seq s and acks

    Seq. #’s: protocol

    byte stream “number” of first byte in segment’s data


    seq # of next byte expected from other side

    cumulative ACK

    Q: how receiver handles out-of-order segments

    A: TCP spec doesn’t say, - up to implementer


    TCP seq. #’s and ACKs

    Host B

    Host A




    Seq=42, ACK=79, data = ‘C’

    host ACKs

    receipt of

    ‘C’, echoes

    back ‘C’

    Seq=79, ACK=43, data = ‘C’

    host ACKs


    of echoed


    Seq=43, ACK=80

    simple telnet scenario

    Transport Layer

    Tcp round trip time and timeout

    Q: protocol how to set TCP timeout value?

    longer than RTT

    but RTT varies

    too short: premature timeout

    unnecessary retransmissions

    too long: slow reaction to segment loss

    Q: how to estimate RTT?

    SampleRTT: measured time from segment transmission until ACK receipt

    ignore retransmissions

    SampleRTT will vary, want estimated RTT “smoother”

    average several recent measurements, not just current SampleRTT

    TCP Round Trip Time and Timeout

    Transport Layer

    Tcp round trip time and timeout1
    TCP Round Trip Time and Timeout protocol

    EstimatedRTT = (1- )*EstimatedRTT + *SampleRTT

    • Exponential weighted moving average

    • influence of past sample decreases exponentially fast

    • typical value:  = 0.125

    Transport Layer

    Example rtt estimation
    Example RTT estimation: protocol

    Transport Layer

    Tcp round trip time and timeout2

    Setting the timeout protocol

    EstimtedRTT plus “safety margin”

    large variation in EstimatedRTT -> larger safety margin

    first estimate of how much SampleRTT deviates from EstimatedRTT:

    TCP Round Trip Time and Timeout

    DevRTT = (1-)*DevRTT +


    (typically,  = 0.25)

    Then set timeout interval:

    TimeoutInterval = EstimatedRTT + 4*DevRTT

    Transport Layer

    Tcp reliable data transfer

    TCP creates rdt service on top of IP’s unreliable service protocol

    pipelined segments

    cumulative ACKs

    TCP uses single retransmission timer

    retransmissions are triggered by:

    timeout events

    duplicate ACKs

    initially consider simplified TCP sender:

    ignore duplicate ACKs

    ignore flow control, congestion control

    TCP reliable data transfer

    Transport Layer

    Tcp sender events

    data rcvd from app: protocol

    create segment with seq #

    seq # is byte-stream number of first data byte in segment

    start timer if not already running (think of timer as for oldest unACKed segment)

    expiration interval: TimeOutInterval


    retransmit segment that caused timeout

    restart timer

    ACK rcvd:

    if acknowledges previously unACKed segments

    update what is known to be ACKed

    start timer if there are outstanding segments

    TCP sender events:

    Transport Layer

    Tcp sender simplified

    NextSeqNum = InitialSeqNum protocol

    SendBase = InitialSeqNum

    loop (forever) {


    event: data received from application above

    create TCP segment with sequence number NextSeqNum

    if (timer currently not running)

    start timer

    pass segment to IP

    NextSeqNum = NextSeqNum + length(data)

    event: timer timeout

    retransmit not-yet-acknowledged segment with

    smallest sequence number

    start timer

    event: ACK received, with ACK field value of y

    if (y > SendBase) {

    SendBase = y

    if (there are currently not-yet-acknowledged segments)

    start timer


    } /* end of loop forever */

    TCP sender(simplified)

    • Comment:

    • SendBase-1: last

    • cumulatively ACKed byte

    • Example:

    • SendBase-1 = 71;y= 73, so the rcvrwants 73+ ;y > SendBase, sothat new data is ACKed

    Transport Layer

    Tcp ack generation rfc 1122 rfc 2581
    TCP ACK generation protocol[RFC 1122, RFC 2581]

    TCP Receiver action

    Delayed ACK. Wait up to 500ms

    for next segment. If no next segment,

    send ACK

    Immediately send single cumulative

    ACK, ACKing both in-order segments

    Immediately send duplicate ACK,

    indicating seq. # of next expected byte

    Immediate send ACK, provided that

    segment starts at lower end of gap

    Event at Receiver

    Arrival of in-order segment with

    expected seq #. All data up to

    expected seq # already ACKed

    Arrival of in-order segment with

    expected seq #. One other

    segment has ACK pending

    Arrival of out-of-order segment

    higher-than-expect seq. # .

    Gap detected

    Arrival of segment that

    partially or completely fills gap

    Transport Layer

    Fast retransmit

    time-out period often relatively long: protocol

    long delay before resending lost packet

    detect lost segments via duplicate ACKs.

    sender often sends many segments back-to-back

    if segment is lost, there will likely be many duplicate ACKs for that segment

    If sender receives 3 ACKs for same data, it assumes that segment after ACKed data was lost:

    fast retransmit:resend segment before timer expires

    Fast Retransmit

    Transport Layer

    Fast retransmit algorithm
    Fast retransmit algorithm: protocol

    event: ACK received, with ACK field value of y

    if (y > SendBase) {

    SendBase = y

    if (there are currently not-yet-acknowledged segments)

    start timer


    else {

    increment count of dup ACKs received for y

    if (count of dup ACKs received for y = 3) {

    resend segment with sequence number y


    a duplicate ACK for

    already ACKed segment

    fast retransmit

    Transport Layer

    Go back n or selective repeat
    Go-Back-N or Selective Repeat? protocol

    • The book says it’s sorta both. To me it mostly looks like GBN

      • Out of order segments not individually ACKed

    • However

      • Many TCP implementations will buffer out of order segments

      • TCP will also usually only retransmit a single segment rather than all of them

    Flow control not congestion control
    Flow Control (NOT congestion control) protocol

    • TCP creates a receive buffer

      • Data is put into the receive buffer once it has been received correctly and in order

      • The application reads from the receive buffer

        • Sometimes not right away.

    • Flow control tries not to overflow this receive buffer

    • Each sender maintains a variable called the receive window

      • What if the receive window goes to 0?

      • In this case, the sending host is required to send segments with 1 data byte

    • What happens in UDP when the UDP receive buffer overflows?

    Tcp flow control

    receive side of TCP connection has a receive buffer: protocol

    speed-matching service: matching send rate to receiving application’s drain rate

    flow control

    sender won’t overflow

    receiver’s buffer by

    transmitting too much,

    too fast


    unused buffer






    TCP data

    (in buffer)

    TCP Flow Control

    • app process may be slow at reading from buffer

    Transport Layer

    Tcp connection management

    Recall: protocolTCP sender, receiver establish “connection” before exchanging data segments

    initialize TCP variables:

    seq. #s

    buffers, flow control info (e.g. RcvWindow)

    client: connection initiator

    Socket clientSocket = new Socket("hostname","port number");

    server: contacted by client

    Socket connectionSocket = welcomeSocket.accept();

    Three way handshake:

    Step 1:client host sends TCP SYN segment to server

    specifies initial seq #

    no data

    Step 2:server host receives SYN, replies with SYNACK segment

    server allocates buffers

    specifies server initial seq. #

    Step 3: client receives SYNACK, replies with ACK segment, which may contain data

    TCP Connection Management

    Transport Layer

    Tcp connection management cont

    Closing a connection: protocol

    client closes socket:clientSocket.close();

    Step 1:client end system sends TCP FIN control segment to server

    Step 2:server receives FIN, replies with ACK. Closes connection, sends FIN.









    timed wait


    TCP Connection Management (cont.)

    Transport Layer

    Tcp connection management cont1

    Step 3: protocolclient receives FIN, replies with ACK.

    Enters “timed wait” - will respond with ACK to received FINs

    Step 4:server, receives ACK. Connection closed.

    Note:with small modification, can handle simultaneous FINs.

    TCP Connection Management (cont.)









    timed wait



    Transport Layer

    Tcp connection management cont2
    TCP Connection Management (cont) protocol

    TCP server


    TCP client


    Transport Layer

    Syn flood attack
    SYN Flood Attack protocol

    • Bad guy sends a bunch of TCP SYN segments

    • Server opens up buffers to create this segment

    • Resources all become allocated to half open TCP connections

      • This is called a SYN flood attack

    • SYN Cookies

      • The server allocates on the resources upon receipt of a ACK (third part of handshake) segment rather than a SYN segment

      • It knows because the sequence field the server sent out was a special number (complex hash function of source and destination IP and port plus the server’s secret number)

      • P. 269s

    How does nmap work
    How does protocolnmap work?

    • To find out what is on a port, nmap sends a TCP SYN segment to that port

      • If the port responds with a SYNACK, it labels the port open

      • If the response is a TCP RST segment, it means the port is not blocked, but it is closed

      • If the response is nothing, the port is blocked by a firewall

    Congestion control principles
    Congestion Control Principles protocol

    • Typical cause of congestion:

      • Overflowing of router buffers as the network becomes congested.

    Scenario 1
    Scenario 1 protocol

    • Scenario 1: two senders, a router with infinite buffers

      • Always maximizing throughput looks good with throughput alone. (left)

      • Maximizing throughput is bad when looking at delays (right)

    Scenario 2
    Scenario 2 protocol

    • Scenario 2: Routers with finite buffers & retransmission

      • If you are constantly resending packets, throughput is even lower since a % of the packets are retransmissions

      • Creating these large delays, you may send needless retransmissions, wasting precious router resources

    Scenario 3
    Scenario 3 protocol

    • Scenario 3: multiple hops

      • When a packet is dropped along a path, the transmission capacity at each of the upstream links ends up being wasted

    Approaches towards congestion control

    end-end congestion control: protocol

    no explicit feedback from network

    congestion inferred from end-system observed loss, delay

    approach taken by TCP

    network-assisted congestion control:

    routers provide feedback to end systems

    single bit indicating congestion (SNA, DECbit, TCP/IP ECN, ATM)

    explicit rate sender should send at

    Approaches towards congestion control

    two broad approaches towards congestion control:

    Transport Layer

    Tcp congestion control
    TCP congestion control: protocol

    • goal: TCP sender should transmit as fast as possible, but without congesting network

      • Q: how to find rate just below congestion level

    • decentralized: each TCP sender sets its own rate, based on implicit feedback:

      • ACK: segment received (a good thing!), network not congested, so increase sending rate

      • lost segment: assume loss due to congested network, so decrease sending rate

    Transport Layer

    Tcp congestion control bandwidth probing

    loss, so decrease rate protocol


    TCP congestion control: bandwidth probing

    • “probing for bandwidth”: increase transmission rate on receipt of ACK, until eventually loss occurs, then decrease transmission rate

      • continue to increase on ACK, decrease on loss (since available bandwidth is changing, depending on other connections in network)

    ACKs being received,

    so increase rate








    sending rate


    • Q: how fast to increase/decrease?

      • details to follow

    Transport Layer

    Tcp congestion control details

    sender limits rate by limiting number of unACKed bytes “in pipeline”:

    cwnd: differs from rwnd(how, why?)

    sender limited bymin(cwnd,rwnd)


    cwndis dynamic, function of perceived network congestion



    rate =



    TCP Congestion Control: details

    LastByteSent-LastByteAcked  cwnd




    Transport Layer

    Tcp congestion control more details

    segment loss event: reducing pipeline”:cwnd

    timeout: no response from receiver

    cut cwnd to 1

    3 duplicate ACKs: at least some segments getting through (recall fast retransmit)

    cut cwnd in half, less aggressively than on timeout

    TCP Congestion Control: more details

    ACK received: increase cwnd

    • slowstart phase:

      • increase exponentially fast (despite name) at connection start, or following timeout

    • congestion avoidance:

      • increase linearly

    Transport Layer

    Tcp slow start

    when connection begins, pipeline”:cwnd = 1 MSS

    example: MSS = 500 bytes & RTT = 200 msec

    initial rate = 20 kbps

    available bandwidth may be >> MSS/RTT

    desirable to quickly ramp up to respectable rate

    increase rate exponentially until first loss event or when threshold reached

    double cwnd every RTT

    done by incrementing cwnd by 1 for every ACK received


    TCP Slow Start

    Host A

    Host B

    one segment


    two segments

    four segments

    Transport Layer

    Transitioning into out of slowstart

    ssthresh: pipeline”:cwnd threshold maintained by TCP

    on loss event: set ssthreshto cwnd/2

    remember (half of) TCP rate when congestion last occurred

    when cwnd >= ssthresh: transition from slowstart to congestion avoidance phase

    new ACK

    cwnd = cwnd+MSS

    dupACKcount = 0

    transmit new segment(s),as allowed


    cwnd = 1 MSS

    ssthresh = 64 KB

    dupACKcount = 0

    cwnd > ssthresh


    ssthresh = cwnd/2

    cwnd = 1 MSS

    dupACKcount = 0

    retransmit missing segment






    ssthresh = cwnd/2

    cwnd = 1 MSS

    dupACKcount = 0

    retransmit missing segment

    duplicate ACK


    Transitioning into/out of slowstart


    Transport Layer

    Tcp congestion avoidance
    TCP: congestion avoidance pipeline”:


    • when cwnd > ssthresh grow cwnd linearly

      • increase cwnd by 1 MSS per RTT

      • approach possible congestion slower than in slowstart

      • implementation: cwnd = cwnd + MSS/cwnd for each ACK received

    • ACKs: increase cwnd by 1 MSS per RTT: additive increase

    • loss: cut cwnd in half (non-timeout-detected loss ): multiplicative decrease

    AIMD: Additive Increase

    Multiplicative Decrease

    Transport Layer

    Popular flavors of tcp
    Popular “flavors” of TCP pipeline”:

    TCP Reno


    cwnd window size (in segments)


    TCP Tahoe

    Transmission round

    Transport Layer

    Summary tcp congestion control
    Summary: TCP Congestion Control pipeline”:

    • when cwnd < ssthresh, sender in slow-start phase, window grows exponentially.

    • when cwnd >= ssthresh, sender is in congestion-avoidance phase, window grows linearly.

    • when triple duplicate ACK occurs, ssthresh set to cwnd/2, cwnd set to ~ ssthresh

    • when timeout occurs, ssthresh set to cwnd/2, cwnd set to 1 MSS.

    Transport Layer

    Fairness more

    Fairness and UDP pipeline”:

    multimedia apps often do not use TCP

    do not want rate throttled by congestion control

    instead use UDP:

    pump audio/video at constant rate, tolerate packet loss

    Fairness and parallel TCP connections

    nothing prevents app from opening parallel connections between 2 hosts.

    web browsers do this

    example: link of rate R supporting 9 connections;

    new app asks for 1 TCP, gets rate R/10

    new app asks for 11 TCPs, gets R/2 !

    Fairness (more)

    Transport Layer