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DOE Microgrid R&D Needs. Steve Bossart Military Smart Grid & Microgrids Symposium November 15, 2012. Topics. Vision and goals Workshop background DOE microgrid R&D needs. Vision and Goals. Microgrid and OE’s Performance Target. Definition by Microgrid Exchange Group.

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DOE Microgrid R&D Needs

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    1. DOE Microgrid R&D Needs Steve Bossart Military Smart Grid & Microgrids Symposium November 15, 2012

    2. Topics • Vision and goals • Workshop background • DOE microgrid R&D needs

    3. Vision and Goals

    4. Microgrid and OE’s Performance Target Definition by Microgrid Exchange Group OE’s 2020 Performance Target A microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources within clearly defined electrical boundaries that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid. A microgrid can connect and disconnect from the grid to enable it to operate in both grid-connected or island-mode. Develop commercial scale (<10MW) microgrid systems capable of reducing outage time of required loads by >98% at a cost comparable to non-integrated baseline solutions (UPS + diesel genset), while reducing emissions by >20% and improving system energy efficiencies by >20%

    5. Microgrids & Smart Grids Microgrid Distributed Generation E-Storage Load Central Generation Load Transmission Distribution Distributed Generation E-Storage

    6. A Possible Future Distribution Architecture Municipal Microgrid Distribution Control Utility Microgrid Industrial Microgrid Campus Microgrid Military Microgrid Commercial Park Microgrid

    7. Microgrid-Enhanced Distribution System • Ease CHP application • Support increase in renewables • Arbitrage of energy price differentials • Enhance G&T using DER for peak shaving • Enhanced reliability with intentional islanding • High local reliability • Energy during outages • Serve critical loads

    8. BackgroundFY2012 DOE Microgrid R&D Workshop

    9. DOE Microgrid R&D Needs Workshop Topics

    10. Development of Microgrid R&D Needs • 2012 DOE Microgrid Workshop Details • Followup to August, 2011 microgrid workshop in San Diego, CA • July 30-31, 2012 at Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL • 100 participants including 13 from 8 foreign countries • Vendors, electric utilities, national labs, universities, research institutes, end users • Purpose • Identify system integration gaps • Define R&D needs to meet functional requirements • Contribute to DOE microgrid R&D roadmap • Contribute to DOE Smart Grid R&D multi-year program plan • Provide content for possible microgrid R&D FOA

    11. DOE OE Microgrid R&D Needs Microgrid Workshop Results

    12. FY2012 DOE Microgrid R&D Areas Planning and Design • System Architecture Development • Modeling and Analysis • Power System Design Operations and Control • Steady State Control and Coordination • Transient State Control and Coordination • Operational Optimization

    13. Microgrid R&D Needs

    14. System Architecture Development Define microgrid applications, interfaces, and services • ideal architecture and use cases • electrical and information architecture • transition existing grid to better incorporate microgrids • Interface standards for interconnection, communications & information Open architectures with flexibility, scalability, & security • develop interoperable distributed controls and flexible architecture to facilitate different applications • move to plug-and-play features for generation & load • controls to include flexibility for power consumption, storage, import, and export

    15. Modeling and Analysis Performance optimization methods and uncertainty in the modeling and design process • Local and dynamic control of power quality • Assessment of diminishing returns of PQ & outages • Better modeling of vehicle-microgrid connection including understanding of mobile sources • Model power & communication together to assess interoperability Develop a standard set of collaborative tools that: • addresses uncertainty • has a more holistic approach to integration of assets • broadly assesses value streams • validates the models and other tools

    16. Power System Design DC Power • establish codes and standards for DC applications in residential, commercial, and industrial environments • develop standard design methodologies and software tools • develop DC system control methods and algorithms • implement a strategy to promote DC microgrids • Improve power electronics (lower cost, higher function and reliability) Microgrid Integration • develop a resource guide (i.e., handbook) to available products, costs, installation methods, valuation methods • standard methods for analysis of microgrid e-storage vs. using main grid • control and communications interfaces from microgrid to main grid • modeling needs to benchmark performance, support design, stochastics • universal power electronics to fit multiple resources

    17. Steady State Control and Coordination Internal Services within a Microgrid • Develop a standard set of hardware and software that supports the communication protocols and cybersecurity standards already developed to allow DER to plug-and-play • Develop three-phase estimators based on phasor measurement units (PMUs) and compatible instrumentation for run time control • Develop a better understanding of methods of decoupling frequency and voltage • Demonstrate a system that can synchronize and reconnect a microgrid under all edge conditions (high PV penetration) for all classes of microgrids. • DER interface with legacy systems such as dumb inverters Interaction of Microgrid with Utility or Other Microgrids • Evaluate microgrids against other existing utility mitigation tools and schemes (e.g., counter intermittent renewables) • Evaluate potential effects of multiple microgrids on the stability of the grid and potential regulations, economic incentives, and control schemes that could be used for mitigation • Tools to manage microgrids and their resources in cooperation with main grid assets • Develop a technical, operational, and economic model to demonstrate the value of microgrids to utilities through simulation and case studies • Evaluate risk of microgrid to add instability (rogue agents)

    18. Transient State Control & Coordination • Develop transient control strategies considering stability limits, additional local and system-wide controls, … • Develop system-wide ride-through capabilities while protecting personnel and equipment • Define impact of types of communication and identify requirements (e.g., latency, reliability, redundancy, …) • Develop 3-phase unbalanced dynamic stability analysis models and Reference Study for transient stability analysis • Develop technically mature, commercially-available autonomous transition control and protection concept and products that meet the defined capabilities • Validate standard microgrid component models for protection and transient studies

    19. Operational Optimization Operational Optimization of a Single Microgrid • Develop real-time (RT) and near-RT controls that incorporate optimization • Evaluate a variety of optimization techniques • Data management (i.e., collect, validate, store, analyze, visualize) • Develop methodology for comparing microgrid baseline to optimized microgrid operations for potential input into business case analysis. Operational Optimization of Multiple Microgrids • Develop RT and near-RT controls that optimize multiple microgrids • Develop methods to negotiate conflicting objectives and optimizations between multiple microgrids • Evaluate variety of optimization techniques applied to multiple microgrids • Develop methodology for comparing multiple microgrid baseline to optimized microgrid operations for potential input into business case • Address possible issue with processing capabilities

    20. Contact Information Merrill Smith & Dan Ton Program Managers Microgrid R&D U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Delivery and Energy Reliability (202) 586-3646 (202) 586-4618 Steve Bossart Senior Energy Analyst U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Lab (304) 285-4643 Key Microgrid Resources: DOE OE Smart Grid