Health Promotion Model. Presented By Sylvia Assiamah NURS 620. Theoretical Foundations in Nursing Dr. Johnson. History of the Theory. The Health Promotion Model (HPM) was developed and published in 1982 by Nola J. Pender.
Health Promotion Model Presented By Sylvia Assiamah NURS 620. Theoretical Foundations in Nursing Dr. Johnson
History of the Theory • The Health Promotion Model (HPM) was developed and published in 1982 by Nola J. Pender. • The model was developed as a “framework for research aimed at predicting overall health promoting lifestyles and specific behaviors such as exercise, and use of protective devices” (Alligood & Tomey, p. 439). • Since its first publication, the HPM has been revised to include diverse populations, and activities which contribute to the overall health of the individual, family or community.
Concepts Of The Theory • Prior Related Behavior: this concept determines the extent to which past behaviors are has an influence on present health promoting behaviors. • Personal Factors: The extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural predicts or shapes the individual(s) health promoting activities. • Perceived Benefits of Action: the benefits which are earned as a result of embarking on health activities. (Alligood & Tomey, p 438 – 439)
Concepts of the Theory • Perceived Barriers to Action: known or imaginary obstacles, such as finances, which may impede health promoting activities. • Perceived Self-Efficacy: A self-awareness of one’s strengths and how it motivates the individual to pursue and achieve health promoting behaviors. • Activity – Related Effect: interplay of how other activities unrelated to health promotion, affect the individual outlook on health promotion activities. (Alligood & Tomey, p 438 – 439)
Concepts Of Theory • Situational Influences: how the unforeseen and unpredicted activities influence the individual, or whether unexpected situations gear the individual toward, or steer the individual from partaking in health promotion activities. • Commitment to a Plan of Action: Specific plans outlined to ensure health promotion strategies. • Immediate Competing Demands and Preferences: this includes family, friends, school, work, all of which are important elements of the individual’s life, but when not managed properly can be deterrence to the achievement of health promoting behaviors. (Alligood & Tomey, p 438 – 439)
Concepts of the Theory • Health Promoting Behavior: includes activities such as exercising, eating a healthy diet, managing stress, nurturing ones’ self spiritually, ensuring sufficient rest, all of which aims to generate positive health outcomes • Interpersonal Influences: how the various relationships in the individual(s) life affect their participation in health promotion behaviors. (Alligood & Tomey, p 438 – 439)
HPM in Practice • Nurse practitioners are advanced nurse practitioners whose functions among other things include the role of health promotion. • Nurse practitioners “are trained in health promotion, disease prevention, and medical management and are well equipped to treat patients in primarycare” (Harrington, 2011). • As primary care providers, nurse practitioners utilize the health promotion model to motivate patients to be responsible for their health, through health promoting behaviors and activities which lead to positive outcomes.
HPM in Practice In another article, Ho, Berggren, and Dahlborg-Lyckhage(2010) explain how the health promotion model, can be used a tool, in the management of diabetes. As a global health problem, diabetes is a lifelong disease, which requires a life time commitment to treatment and management. The authors conclude in their research article that “it is beneficial to use the HPM in diabetes empowerment, as it provides a framework for explaining clients’ health behaviors, and there by enable health-care professionals to assist clients to overcome their barriers and enhance their self-efficacy in relation to lifestyle modification” ( Ho, Berggren, & Dahlborg-Lyckhage, 2010).
HPM as a Research framework The health promotion model since its inception has been revised and currently serves as a framework for many primary care models. Alligwood and Tomey (2010), relay the importance of the theory stating how “Pender and colleagues have conducted a program of research funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research to evaluate the HPM in four populations; working adults, older community dwelling adults, ambulatory cancer patients, and patients undergoing cancer rehabilitation” (p. 439).
HPM as a Research framework Alligwood and Tomey (2010), relay the importance of the theory stating how “Pender and colleagues have conducted a program of research funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research to evaluate the HPM in four populations; working adults, older community dwelling adults, ambulatory cancer patients, and patients undergoing cancer rehabilitation” (p. 439).
HPM as a Research framework • To determine the probability of nurses providing health promotion activities as part of nursing interventions for their patients, Esposito and Fitzpatrick (2011), conclude that “the prospect of impacting the personal exercise behaviors of nurses and potentially influencing the health behaviors of others is in alignment with the tenets of health promotion and large scale population health management”. The research indicates that when healthcare providers adopt health promoting lifestyles, there are likely to recommend similar strategies for their patients.
Utilizing HPM in Education • The health promotion model is utilized in most graduate nursing programs, and is gaining popularity in undergraduate nursing education. • For instance, NURS 600, offered as a clinical course at Coppin State University, is an advanced health assessment and promotion for students in the FNP program. • Incorporating technology is another way in which the HPM can be used in education. Research supports the notion that technology based applications are being used to promote healthy behaviors
References Alligood M. R., & Tomey, A. M. (2010). Nursing Theorists and Their Work (7th ed.). Missouri: ‘ Mosby/Elsevier. Esposito, E., & Fitzpatrick, J. (2011). Registered nurses' beliefs of the benefits of exercise, their exercise behavior and their patient teaching regarding exercise. International Journal Of Nursing Practice, 17(4), 351-356. Harrington, S. (2011). Mentoring new nurse practitioners to accelerate their development as primary care providers: A literature review. Journal Of The American Academy Of Nurse Practitioners, 23(4), 168-174. Ho, A., Berggren, I., & Dahlborg-Lyckhage, E. (2010). Diabetes empowerment related to Pender's Health Promotion Model: a meta-synthesis. Nursing & Health Sciences, 12(2), 259-267.