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Chapter 1: e-learning: promise and pitfalls Chapter 2: How people learn from e-courses. E-learning: The Science of Instruction Ruth Colvin Clark and Richard E Mayer. Original author: Professor: Glenn D. Blank Modified by: Professor: Onaje O. Johnston .

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Chapter 1 e learning promise and pitfalls chapter 2 how people learn from e courses

Chapter 1: e-learning: promise and pitfalls

Chapter 2: How people learn from e-courses

E-learning: The Science of InstructionRuth Colvin Clark and Richard E Mayer

Original author: Professor: Glenn D. Blank

Modified by: Professor: Onaje O. Johnston

Ruth Colvin Clark and Richard E. Mayer, e-Learning and the Science of Instruction, 2nd edition, Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer 2007.

The e learning bandwagon
The e-Learning Bandwagon

  • 90% of universities have distance learning

    • U of Phoenix, Athabasca U, etc., entirely online

  • $50-60 billion/year spent on corporate and governmental training (as of 2003)

    • 11% delivered by computer in 2001

    • Verizon’s Virtual University hosts most technical training

    • U.S. Army partners with PricewaterhouseCoopers

  • What is a knowledge-based economy?

    • Is e-learning a key to knowledge-based economy?

What is a knowledge economy
What is a knowledge economy?

A knowledge-based economyrefers to the use of knowledge technologies (such as knowledge engineering and knowledge management ) to produce economic benefits. … The essential difference is that in a knowledge economy, knowledge is a product, in knowledge-based economy, knowledge is a tool.

  • - Knowledge economy. (2009, April 15). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15:38, April 21, 2009, from

What is e learning
What is e-learning?

  • Instruction delivered via computer

    • Content relevant to learning objectives

    • Uses instructional methods such as examples and practice

    • Builds new knowledge and skills

Media instructional methods
Media + instructional methods

  • Media elements present and illustrate content

    • Text, audio narration, music, graphics, animation and video

    • E.g., Dreamweaver course uses audio narration and animated graphics

  • Instructional techniques support learning

    • Examples, practice exercises, feedback

    • E.g., Dreamweaver lesson uses simulation practice

    • Why might simulating an actual work environment be particularly effective?

When to use e learning from margaret driscoll web based training
When to use e-Learning (from Margaret Driscoll, Web-Based Training)

  • Cognitive skills: solving problems, applying rules, distinguishing items

    • E.g., how to complete tax forms

  • Psychomotor skills: coordination physical movement and thought

    • E.g., driving a golf ball or driving a crane

    • Require coaching and detailed feedback

  • Attitudinal skills: opinions and behaviors

    • E.g., whether to recycle

  • Which is hardest to teach with multimedia?

Which skills are most suitable for e learning
Which skills are most suitable for e-learning?

  • CPR training?

  • Developing a sort algorithm?

  • Supporting a political party?

  • Driving a stick shift?

  • Finding and using Photoshop plug-ins?

  • Trouble-shooting printer problems?

The art of changing the brain james e zull
The Art of Changing the Brain(James E. Zull)

  • The Learning Cycle: Sense → Integrate → Act

    • Learning originates with concrete sensory experience

    • Reflective observation integrates inputs in patterns and develops generalizations or abstract hypotheses

    • Active learning tests the results of motor output

Three theories of learning
Three theories of learning

  • Receptive: information acquisition

    • Learning adds information to memory

    • Instruction delivers information efficiently

  • Directive: response strengthening

    • Strengthen stimulus-response associations

    • Drill-and-practice with reinforcing feedback

  • Guided discovery: knowledge construction

    • Learner builds a mental representation

    • Guide learner in the context of solving problems

  • Is one theory right? Or a combination?

Types of e learning goals
Types of e-Learning goals

  • Inform: build awareness, e.g., about a company’s organization

  • Perform: build skills, e.g., how to use software or how to evaluate bank loans

    • Procedural: step-by step tasks

      • Near transfer from training to application

      • Learning Dreamweaver may involve near transfer? Why?Give an example.

    • Principle-based: guidelines and problem-solving skills

      • Far transfer from training to application

      • Why does learning how to evaluate bank loans far transfer?

How do people learn
How do people learn?

  • Two information processing channels:

    • visual and auditory, each with limited capacity (attention)

  • Working memory has limited capacity:

    • 7 chunks plus or minus 2

  • Learning occurs by active processing

    • From working to long-term memory

    • Rehearsal encodes knowledge

  • Knowledge must be retrieved from memory

    • Retrieval brings knowledge back into working memory

Pitfalls of e learning
Pitfalls of e-Learning

  • Failure to do job or skill analysis

    • Presenting skills and knowledge out of job context risks transfer failure

    • How could this pitfall affect your project?

  • Failure to accommodate human learning

    • Multimedia can actually depress learning if it overwhelms limits of human processing

  • Attrition: e-Learning dropouts at least 35%

    • Games and stories may detract from learning Why?

Do these techniques aid human learning if so why
Do these techniques aid human learning? If so, why?

  • Using an arrow or color to draw the eye to important information?

  • Listing learning objectives up front?

  • Omitting background music?

  • Using succinct text?

  • Ask about trouble-shooting actions relevant to job context?

E learning research
e-Learning Research

  • Informal studies: observing people as they learn or asking them about it

    • Formative evaluation makes changes from learner feedback

    • Summative evaluation reports results to sponsors & others

  • Formal studies use experimental research design, with subjects randomly assigned to test and control groups

    • Controlled: compare outcomes of 2 or more groups of learners

    • Clinical trials: evaluate e-learning in real world contexts

    • Should show statistical significance (p<.05)

  • Book uses results of controlled studies that suggest basic design principles for e-learning

    • Why is experimental basis useful?

Design dilemma clark mayer e learning chapter 3 pp 52 53
Design dilemma(Clark & Mayer, e-Learning, chapter 3, pp. 52-53)

  • VP thinks a short course should just consist of text and tells course designer:

  • “Everything they need to know is in the text. All they have to do is read it. And we don’t have much time!”

  • How should the course designer react?

  • “Do you mind if I come up with something that builds on your text?”

The multimedia principle
The Multimedia Principle

  • Include both words and graphics

  • Why?

  • Graphics facilitate active learning, mentally making connection between pictorial and verbal representations

  • Words alone may cause shallow learning

Two kinds of pictures
Two kinds of pictures

  • Decorative vs. explanative illustrations

  • What’s the difference?

  • Decorative pictures are eye candy

  • Explanative illustrations help learner understand the material

  • Instructional designer’s job is to enable learner to make sense of information

Match graphics to content
Match graphics to content

  • Illustrate procedures with screen captures

  • Show a process flow with arrows or animated graphics

  • Organize topics by using rollover buttons to show different graphics

Psychology of multimedia
Psychology of multimedia

  • Information delivery theory: learning consists of acquiring information

    • Information format shouldn’t matter

  • Cognitive theory: learning is actively making sense of information

    • Active learning involves constructing and connecting visual and verbal representations of material

Evidence for multimedia effect
Evidence for multimedia effect

  • Ten lessons teaching scientific or mechanical processes, such as how pumps work

  • Students who receive multimedia lesson perform better on post-test than students who receive same information in words

  • Improvement of 55-121% more correct solutions to transfer problems

  • Similar results in experiments with CIMEL

Sample e learning interfaces
Sample e-learning interfaces

Thomas Toth @ Trainers Talk Tech

Created two (2) sample AS 3.0 eLearning interfaces

Functions included in interfaces:

  • Clicking on a button and going to a URL

  • Clicking on a button and going to the next frame

  • Clicking on a button and going to a previous frame

  • Dynamically pulling data about frame position and total frame numbers

  • A movie clip code changing properties of the parent movie

10 Tips for Using Flash in e-Learning

By Al Lemieux, Senior Designer, SyberWorks, Inc.

Final project
Final Project

  • E-learning module for adults

  • - submit topic ideas

  • ActionScript requirements: ~ 50 lines of code

  • - use it to control things like menus/navigation, playing movies, games, animation etc.