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Introduction to SPSS. Descriptive Statistics. Introduction to SPSS. Statistics Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Commonly used statistical software package Very user-friendly How you will be doing statistics in graduate school. Introduction to SPSS.

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Introduction to SPSS

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introduction to spss

Introduction to SPSS

Descriptive Statistics

introduction to spss1
Introduction to SPSS
  • Statistics Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS)
    • Commonly used statistical software package
    • Very user-friendly
    • How you will be doing statistics in graduate school
introduction to spss2
Introduction to SPSS
  • Divided into “data view” & “variable view”
    • Default is data view
    • Data view – shows the data
    • Variable view – summary of variables, options related to them
    • Switch between them by:
      • clicking on tabs located on bottom left of screen
      • clicking on “View”  “Data/Variables” in top menu
      • pressing CTRL+T
entering data
Entering Data
  • Can either enter data by hand or import from other programs (i.e. Excel)
    • Hand entering
      • Insert a variable by:
        • Right clicking one of the rows in variable view and selecting “Insert Variable”
        • Entering a “Name” in variable view and pressing “Enter” or “Tab”
        • Right clicking on a column in the data view and selecting “Insert Variable”
        • Clicking on the “Insert Variable” icon in the Toolbar
        • Clicking on “Data”  “Insert Variable”
entering data1
Entering Data
  • Define variables in variable view
    • Name = Name of variable displayed in data view
    • Type = Numeric, Comma, Dot, Scientific notation, Date, Dollar, Custom currency, & String
    • Width = # of digits displayed in data view
    • Decimals = # of decimal places displayed in data view
    • Label = Name of variable displayed when running analyses
    • Values = Value Labels – i.e. 1 = Male, 0 = Female
    • Missing = Values that the system will recognize as missing
    • Columns = # of columns used to display variable in data view
    • Align = variable left, right, or center aligned
    • Measure = scale on which variable is measured – Nominal, Ordinal, or Scale (Interval or Ratio)
entering data2
Entering Data
  • Importing Data
    • Click “File”  “Open”  “Data”
    • Select the file type in question
    • If Excel:
      • Make sure top row of excel file lists variable names & the variables all have different names
      • After selecting the file, click Enter – make sure the box “Read variable names from the first row of data” is clicked
      • Make sure you variable are defined properly in the variable view
  • File & Edit Menus
    • Exactly the same as all Windows programs
  • View Menu
    • Allows you to customize the SPSS desktop
      • Status Bar – “Processor Area” at the very bottom of the screen
      • Toolbars
      • Fonts
      • Grid Lines
      • Value Labels – Make sure this is selected if you want to use them
      • Variables/Data view
  • Data Menu
    • Define Dates… = Inserts a Date variable
    • Insert Variable
    • Insert Case
    • Go to Case…
    • Sort Cases… = Ascending or descending order
    • Transpose… = Switches cases and variables (former in columns and latter in rows)
    • Merge Files – More on this later
    • Split Files – More on this later
    • Select Cases = If condition is satisfied, Random sample of cases, Based on time or case range, Use filter variable
splitting and merging files
Splitting and Merging Files
  • Splitting
    • Click on “Organize output by groups” – grouping variable should be discrete (i.e. gender, hair color, etc.)
    • Click on grouping variable and move to “Groups Based on” box
    • Click “OK”
  • Merging
    • You can add either variables or cases
    • If adding variables:
      • Make sure both files share at least one variable that is identical, the key variable (i.e. SubID)
      • Make sure both files are sorted by this variable
      • Make sure, in both files, all cases have data for this variable and there are no duplicate cases
      • Click on “Merge Files”  “Add Variables”
      • Find the file you wish to merge with the one you have open
      • The variable in the “Excluded Variables” box should be the key variable, denoted by a (+) indicating its presence in both files
      • Click on “Match cases on key variables in sorted files”
      • Move the key variable to the “Key Variables” box
      • Click “OK”
  • Transform Menu
    • Compute...
      • Name new variable in “Target Variable” box
      • Type equation in “Numeric Expression” box
    • Recode – Into Same/Different Variable
      • Select variable(s) to recode and move to the “Variables” box
      • Click “Old and New Values”
      • Click “OK”
    • Count…
      • Name new variable in “Target Variable” box
      • Select variable(s) with values to be counted & move to the “Numeric Variables” box
      • Click “Define Values…”
      • Click “OK”
    • Rank Cases…
      • Select variable(s) to rank and move to the “Variable(s)” box
      • Click “Assign Rank 1 to” either “Smallest value” or “Largest value”
      • Click “OK”
obtaining descriptive statistics
Obtaining Descriptive Statistics
  • Click on “Analyze”  “Descriptive Statistics” 
    • Frequencies
      • Use to determine counts on values of variables
      • Cut scores and %iles
  • Click on “Analyze”  “Descriptive Statistics” 
    • Descriptives
      • Use to get descriptive statistics (central tendency, variability, etc.)
      • Use to convert variables to z-scores
  • Click on “Analyze”  “Descriptive Statistics” 
    • Explore
      • Use to examine descriptive statistics by grouping variable