Introduction to SPSS

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Introduction to SPSS. Descriptive Statistics. Introduction to SPSS. Statistics Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Commonly used statistical software package Very user-friendly How you will be doing statistics in graduate school. Introduction to SPSS.

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Introduction to SPSS

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Introduction to SPSS

Descriptive Statistics

Introduction to SPSS
• Statistics Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS)
• Commonly used statistical software package
• Very user-friendly
• How you will be doing statistics in graduate school
Introduction to SPSS
• Divided into “data view” & “variable view”
• Default is data view
• Data view – shows the data
• Variable view – summary of variables, options related to them
• Switch between them by:
• clicking on tabs located on bottom left of screen
• clicking on “View”  “Data/Variables” in top menu
• pressing CTRL+T
Entering Data
• Can either enter data by hand or import from other programs (i.e. Excel)
• Hand entering
• Insert a variable by:
• Right clicking one of the rows in variable view and selecting “Insert Variable”
• Entering a “Name” in variable view and pressing “Enter” or “Tab”
• Right clicking on a column in the data view and selecting “Insert Variable”
• Clicking on the “Insert Variable” icon in the Toolbar
• Clicking on “Data”  “Insert Variable”
Entering Data
• Define variables in variable view
• Name = Name of variable displayed in data view
• Type = Numeric, Comma, Dot, Scientific notation, Date, Dollar, Custom currency, & String
• Width = # of digits displayed in data view
• Decimals = # of decimal places displayed in data view
• Label = Name of variable displayed when running analyses
• Values = Value Labels – i.e. 1 = Male, 0 = Female
• Missing = Values that the system will recognize as missing
• Columns = # of columns used to display variable in data view
• Align = variable left, right, or center aligned
• Measure = scale on which variable is measured – Nominal, Ordinal, or Scale (Interval or Ratio)
Entering Data
• Importing Data
• Click “File”  “Open”  “Data”
• Select the file type in question
• If Excel:
• Make sure top row of excel file lists variable names & the variables all have different names
• After selecting the file, click Enter – make sure the box “Read variable names from the first row of data” is clicked
• Make sure you variable are defined properly in the variable view
• Exactly the same as all Windows programs
• Allows you to customize the SPSS desktop
• Status Bar – “Processor Area” at the very bottom of the screen
• Toolbars
• Fonts
• Grid Lines
• Value Labels – Make sure this is selected if you want to use them
• Variables/Data view
• Define Dates… = Inserts a Date variable
• Insert Variable
• Insert Case
• Go to Case…
• Sort Cases… = Ascending or descending order
• Transpose… = Switches cases and variables (former in columns and latter in rows)
• Merge Files – More on this later
• Split Files – More on this later
• Select Cases = If condition is satisfied, Random sample of cases, Based on time or case range, Use filter variable
Splitting and Merging Files
• Splitting
• Click on “Organize output by groups” – grouping variable should be discrete (i.e. gender, hair color, etc.)
• Click on grouping variable and move to “Groups Based on” box
• Click “OK”
• Merging
• You can add either variables or cases
• Make sure both files share at least one variable that is identical, the key variable (i.e. SubID)
• Make sure both files are sorted by this variable
• Make sure, in both files, all cases have data for this variable and there are no duplicate cases
• Click on “Merge Files”  “Add Variables”
• Find the file you wish to merge with the one you have open
• The variable in the “Excluded Variables” box should be the key variable, denoted by a (+) indicating its presence in both files
• Click on “Match cases on key variables in sorted files”
• Move the key variable to the “Key Variables” box
• Click “OK”
• Compute...
• Name new variable in “Target Variable” box
• Type equation in “Numeric Expression” box
• Recode – Into Same/Different Variable
• Select variable(s) to recode and move to the “Variables” box
• Click “Old and New Values”
• Click “OK”
• Count…
• Name new variable in “Target Variable” box
• Select variable(s) with values to be counted & move to the “Numeric Variables” box
• Click “Define Values…”
• Click “OK”
• Rank Cases…
• Select variable(s) to rank and move to the “Variable(s)” box
• Click “Assign Rank 1 to” either “Smallest value” or “Largest value”
• Click “OK”
Obtaining Descriptive Statistics
• Click on “Analyze”  “Descriptive Statistics” 
• Frequencies
• Use to determine counts on values of variables
• Cut scores and %iles
Descriptives
• Click on “Analyze”  “Descriptive Statistics” 
• Descriptives
• Use to get descriptive statistics (central tendency, variability, etc.)
• Use to convert variables to z-scores
Explore
• Click on “Analyze”  “Descriptive Statistics” 
• Explore
• Use to examine descriptive statistics by grouping variable