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Don’t Hit the Wall: Nutrition 101 for the Marathon. Carbohydrate – A Runner’s Friend. Spares muscle glycogen Consume before, during and after long runs Not all created equally Simple vs. complex Enriched vs. whole grain Inadequate carbohydrate intake can lead to:

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carbohydrate a runner s friend
Carbohydrate – A Runner’s Friend
  • Spares muscle glycogen
  • Consume before, during and after long runs
  • Not all created equally
    • Simple vs. complex
    • Enriched vs. whole grain
  • Inadequate carbohydrate intake can lead to:
    • Protein/muscle breakdown
    • Decreased ability to burn body fat
protein why do we need it
Protein – Why Do We Need It?
  • Immune function
  • Hormone production
  • Repair damaged muscle tissue (foot strike)
  • Optimize carbohydrate storage in muscles – eat carbohydrate + protein after long runs
  • Help stabilize blood sugar levels when consumed with a carbohydrate meal/snack

Gibala, MJ. Protein Nutrition and Endurance Exercise: What Does Science Say? Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Sports Science Library. Accessed 3/06/07. Available: http://www.gssiweb.com/Article_Detail.aspx?articleid=719&level=3&topic=2

fat friend or foe
Fat – Friend or Foe?
  • Unlimited storage capacity – 150 lb lean athlete may have 60,000 calories of stored fat
  • Fat not used for energy is easily stored as body fat
  • Fat is not a fast or efficient source of energy –sluggishness during runs if too much
  • During exercise – trained vs. untrained people and women vs. men burn a higher % calories as fat
  • Some fat in the diet is necessary to absorb some nutrients, vitamins and anti-oxidants (carotenoids).
choose healthy fats
Choose These:

Avocado

Canola oil

Fatty fish – salmon

Flax seeds

Natural nut butters

Nuts, seeds

Olives, olive oil

Avoid These:

Saturated fat

High fat animal and dairy products

Coconut oil

Palm, palm kernal oil

Trans fats – partially hydrogenated oils

Choose Healthy Fats
get that fluid on board
Get That Fluid On Board!
  • Dehydration can start within 15-20 minutes
  • Fluid intake may not keep up with absorption rate – maximum repletion rate is about 4 cups per hour
  • Even a 1% fluid loss impairs performance
  • Thirst may not “kick in” until 2% fluid loss – or 3 lbs (6 cups) for a 150-lb person
signs of dehydration
Signs of Dehydration
  • Thirst, dry mouth
  • Weakness, fatigue
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • High body temperature
  • Muscle cramps – legs
  • Dizziness, confusion
  • Weak, rapid heart rate
  • Lack of coordination & judgment

Horswill, CA. Signs of dehydration. Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Sports Science Library. Accessed 3/7/07. Available: www.gssiweb.com/Article_Detail.aspx?articleid=428

hydrate morning noon and night
Hydrate Morning, Noon and Night
  • Plain water is OK for <60 minutes of exercise
  • Sports beverages (fluid, carbohydrate and sodium) good for >60 minutes of exercise
  • Carry fluid with you at all times!
  • Pre- and During Run or Race:
    • Drink at least 16 oz. (2 cups) fluid 1-2 hours before run
    • Drink 6-12 oz. fluid every 15-20 minutes during run
  • Post-Run or Race:
    • Drink at least 16-24 oz. (2-3 cups) fluid per pound lost
    • Drink until urine is pale or clear

Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. JADA 2000;100(12):1543-1566.

daily eating daily fuel
Daily Eating, Daily Fuel
  • Eat regularly, every 3 to 4 hours
  • Eat balanced meals – grain/starch, protein, fruit/vegetable, healthy fat
  • Choose whole grains vs. white enriched
  • Fuel your body with nourishing food!
  • Experiment during training!
  • Do not try something new on race day!
the last meal meal before the marathon
The “Last Meal” - Meal Before the Marathon
  • High carbohydrate – spare muscle glycogen
  • Easily digestible – low fat, protein, fiber
  • Size of meal depends on time before start
  • Lots of fluid – at least 2 cups per hour
  • Avoid alcohol; limit caffeine and sodium

Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. JADA 2000;100(12):1543-1566.

what about carbohydrate loading
What About Carbohydrate Loading?
  • Carbohydrate loading - a technique used to load the muscles up with glycogen, which historically involved more drastic measures
  • Try a “modified” version:
    • Taper or reduce run-training during the week preceding the marathon
    • Continue daily carbohydrate-rich food intake during the week preceding the marathon
    • Consume carbohydrate-rich foods and/or beverages during marathon
fuel up during the marathon
Fuel-Up During the Marathon
  • Mostly simple, some complex carbohydrates (spare muscle glycogen)
  • Easily digestible and well-tolerated (trial & error)
  • Sports beverage containing water, sugar (7%), sodium and potassium
  • Sports drinks, energy gels, energy bars
  • Avoid anything too concentrated, like undiluted juice or soda
  • Avoid fructose as the first ingredient

Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. JADA 2000;100(12):1543-1566.

recovery meals
Recovery Meals
  • First 4-6 hours are crucial for optimal recovery and repair.
  • 15 minutes post – high carb beverage
  • 2 hours post – high carb snack, with a little protein, if possible
  • 4 hours post – high carb meal with moderate protein
  • Choose carbs with high glycemic index for maximal muscle glycogen synthesis
  • Drink until urine is pale or clear!

Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. JADA 2000;100(12):1543-1566.

vitamins and minerals
Vitamins and Minerals
  • Athletes who are at risk for inadequate intake:
    • Restrict energy intake/severe weight loss practices
    • Eliminate one or more food groups from diet
    • Consume high carb, low vit/min-dense foods
  • Women more likely to lack calcium, iron and zinc
  • Some vitamins and minerals compete with each other for absorption (mega doses)
  • Insurance policy – daily multi-vitamin/mineral, plus extra calcium for women

Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. JADA 2000;100(12):1543-1566.

weight loss success
Weight Loss Success
  • Regular physical activity
  • Moderate reductions in calorie intake
  • Healthy eating patterns and behaviors
  • Keep records of food intake, physical activity, and goals
  • Be mentally ready and committed
keep the fire burning
Keep the Fire Burning!
  • Eat often, every 3 to 4 hours
  • Eat enough to support life!
  • Be physically active most days of the week (run/walk)
  • Pump some iron to help build muscle
you can do it
You Can Do It!
  • Is your mental tape supportive and friendly?