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Nutrition 101. Andrew Lysy Look here for help with nutrition!. 1. Macronutrients. Carbohydrates – 4 calories/g Proteins – 4 calories/g Lipids – 9 calories/g. 2. What are Micronutrients?. Provide calories or energy Needed for Growth Metabolism Other body functions

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nutrition 101
Nutrition 101
  • Andrew Lysy
  • Look here for help with nutrition!

1

macronutrients
Macronutrients
  • Carbohydrates – 4 calories/g
  • Proteins – 4 calories/g
  • Lipids – 9 calories/g

2

what are micronutrients
What are Micronutrients?
  • Provide calories or energy
  • Needed for
    • Growth
    • Metabolism
    • Other body functions
  • Needed in large amounts

3

macronutrients1
Macronutrients
  • Average person needs to consume 2,000 calories/day
  • Athletes and people who exercise consume more
  • Sedentary consume less
  • 3,500 calories = 1 pound
  • Fat and muscle weigh the same
    • 1 lb of fat takes up more space

4

daily values
Daily Values
  • Based on 2,000 calorie diet
    • Total fat : 65g
      • Saturated fat : 20g
      • Cholesterol: 300 mg
    • Carbohydrates: 300g
      • Dietary fiber : 25g
      • Sodium : 2,400 mg
    • Protein : 50g

5

carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • 45-70% of calories (2,000 calorie/day)
  • Main source of fuel
  • Glucose -> energy
  • CNS, kidneys, brain, muscles, RBC need carbs to function
  • Stored and used later for energy
  • Fiber

6

carbohydrates1
Carbohydrates
  • Found in starchy foods
    • Fruits
    • Milk
    • Yogurt
    • Bread
    • Potatoes

7

carbohydrate misconceptions
Carbohydrate Misconceptions
  • Causes obesity
  • Protein intake > carb intake
  • Less carb intake will burn more fat
  • Eating carbs makes you hungry

8

protein
Protein
  • 10-35% of calories (2,000 calorie/day)
    • 0.8-1.8 g/lb
  • Growth
  • Tissue repair
  • Immune function
  • Hormones and enzymes
  • Last source of energy
  • Lean muscle mass

9

protein1
Protein
  • Found in:
    • Meats
    • Poultry
    • Fish
    • Cheese
    • Milk
    • Nuts

10

what is a protein
What is a “Protein”
  • Complete proteins
    • Contain all amino acids
    • Correct ratio for + nitrogen balance
  • Incomplete proteins
    • Lacks one or more essential amino acids
  • Complementary protein
    • Two or more incomplete proteins together

11

complementary proteins
Complementary Proteins
  • Popular for vegetarians and vegans
      • Grains and legumes
        • Rice and beans
        • Rice and peas
        • Wheat and peanuts

12

lipids
Lipids
  • 20-30% of calories (2,000 calorie/day)
  • Normal growth and development
  • Second source of energy
  • Fat-soluble vitamins
    • A, D, E, K
  • Provides cushion for organs
  • Maintains cell membranes
  • Taste, consistency, stability to foods

13

lipids are they bad
Lipids: Are They Bad?
  • Saturated Fatty Acids
    • Unhealthy
    • Solid at room temperature
  • Unsaturated Fatty Acids
    • More beneficial
  • Monounsaturated Fatty Acid
    • Oils- olive, canola, peanuts, avocados
  • Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid
    • Sunflower oil, corn oil
  • Trans unsaturated Fatty Acid
    • Increases shelf life

14

omega 3 fatty acids
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
  • ALA, CLA, DHA
  • Essential fatty acids
    • Lower total serum cholesterol
    • Interferes with blood clotting
    • Increased smooth muscle relaxation
    • Decreases excessive inflammation
    • Too much can cause damage
    • No more than 3g/day

15

micronutrients
Micronutrients
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water

16

vitamins
Vitamins
  • Essential for health
  • Fat-soluble
    • Vitamins A, D, E, K
  • Water-soluble
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin B-complex
  • Regulate energy metabolism
  • Control process of tissue synthesis
  • Protect cell’s plasma membrane

17

minerals
Minerals
  • Essential to life
  • Provide structure in formation of bones and teeth
  • Maintain normal heart rhythm
  • Muscle contractility
  • Acid-base balance
  • Regulate metabolism

18

good eating
Good Eating
  • Variety
  • Balance
  • Moderation
  • Adequacy
  • Calorie Control
  • “Everything in moderation, including moderation”

20

good eating1
Good Eating
  • Balance calories
    • Avoid oversized portions
      • Restaurants
  • Increase fruits and vegetables
  • Make half of your grains whole
  • Water >

21

content definitions
Content Definitions
  • Free -No or minimal amount
    • Fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sugar, calories
  • Low - fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, calorie
  • Lean - Fat content in meat, poultry, seafood
  • High - 20% or more of DV
  • Good source - 10-19% of DV

22

content definitions1
Content Definitions
  • Reduced - at least 25% less than regular
  • Less - 25% less
  • Light - 1/3 fewer calories and/or 1/2 of fat
  • More - 10% or more of DV

23

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