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WASTE : Linking the local and global crises. Verona , May 25 2007 Dr Paul Connett Professor Emeritus of Chemistry St Lawrence University, Canton, NY Paul @ American Health Studies. org. My thanks to Rossano Ercolini (Ambiente Futuro) for organizing my 29th visit to Italy.

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waste linking the local and global crises

WASTE :Linking the local and global crises

Verona, May 25 2007

Dr Paul Connett

Professor Emeritus of Chemistry

St Lawrence University, Canton, NY

Paul@AmericanHealthStudies.org

my thanks to rossano ercolini ambiente futuro for organizing my 29th visit to italy

My thanks to Rossano Ercolini (Ambiente Futuro) for organizing my 29th visit to Italy

Rossano Ercolini

Ambientefuturo@interfree.it

338-28-66-215

slide6

All’età di 16 anni i ragazzi di oggi hanno già guardato

oltre

350.000 spot pubblicitari.

Paul Hawken

The Ecology of Commerce

slide7
Viviamo su questo pianeta come se ne avessimo un altro su cui trasferirci…

Non possiamo continuare a vivere in una società “usa e getta” su un pianeta finito

This is colonialism in time!

We are robbing our own children and grandchildren

Con le discariche non facciamo altro che SOTTERRARE le prove

Gli inceneritori non fanno che BRUCIARE le prove

Dobbiamo affrontare il vero problema …

slide12

A LINEAR SOCIETY

We are imposing a linear society

on a planet

that functions in circles

slide13

A LINEAR SOCIETY

Extraction of

Virgin

Materials

slide14

A LINEAR SOCIETY

Extraction of

Virgin

Materials

Production of

Manufactured

items

slide15

A LINEAR SOCIETY

Extraction of

Virgin

Materials

Production of

Manufactured

items

Consumption

slide16

A LINEAR SOCIETY

Extraction of

Virgin

Materials

Production of

Manufactured

items

Consumption

Discarded

Materials

slide17

ENERGY

Extraction of

Virgin

Materials

Production of

Manufactured

items

Consumption

Discarded

Materials

Solid waste

Air pollution

Water pollution

Carbon dioxide

slide18

ENERGY

ENERGY

Extraction of

Virgin

Materials

Production of

Manufactured

items

Consumption

Discarded

Materials

Solid waste

Air pollution

Water pollution

Carbon dioxide

Solid waste

Air pollution

Water pollution

Carbon dioxide

slide19

INCINERATION & LANDFILLS

ENERGY

ENERGY

Extraction of

Virgin

Materials

Production of

Manufactured

items

Consumption

Discarded

Materials

Solid waste

Air pollution

Water pollution

Carbon dioxide

Solid waste

Air pollution

Water pollution

Carbon dioxide

slide20

RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

ENERGY

ENERGY

Extraction of

Virgin

Materials

Production of

Manufactured

items

Consumption

Discarded

Materials

Solid waste

Air pollution

Water pollution

Carbon dioxide

Solid waste

Air pollution

Water pollution

Carbon dioxide

slide21

REUSE OF OBJECTS

ENERGY

ENERGY

Extraction of

Virgin

Materials

Production of

Manufactured

items

Consumption

Discarded

Materials

Solid waste

Air pollution

Water pollution

Carbon dioxide

Solid waste

Air pollution

Water pollution

Carbon dioxide

slide22

COMPOSTING

ENERGY

ENERGY

Extraction of

Virgin

Materials

Production of

Manufactured

items

Consumption

Discarded

Materials

Solid waste

Air pollution

Water pollution

Carbon dioxide

Solid waste

Air pollution

Water pollution

Carbon dioxide

global warming
Global warming

Composting

Landfill

Incineration

global warming1
Global warming

Composting

Landfill

Incineration

Methane

SLOW

global warming2
Global warming

Composting

Landfill

Incineration

Carbon dioxide

FAST

Methane

SLOW

global warming3
Global warming

Composting

Landfill

Incineration

Carbon dioxide &

Some Methane

SLOW

Carbon dioxide

FAST

Methane

SLOW

global warming4
Global warming

Composting

Landfill

Incineration

Carbon dioxide &

Some Methane

SLOW

Carbon dioxide

FAST

Methane

SLOW

Sequestered

Carbon

slide29

Gli studi della EU sul confronto dei sistemi di trattamenti dei RU residui

AEA executive report waste climate change (Nov. 2002)

  • Recycling
  • Composting
  • Mechanical biological treatment (MBT)
  • Anaerobic Digestion (AD)
  • Incineration
  • Landfill of untreated waste

Extract from summary report

kg gas serra tonnellata rifiuti urbani
Kg gas serra/tonnellata Rifiuti Urbani

Waste Management Options and Climate Change. AEA 2002

arguments against incineration
Arguments against incineration
  • Emissioni tossiche nell’atmosfera
  • Produzione di ceneri tossiche
  • Pubblica opposizione. Incineration is anti-democratic
  • Costi finanziari. Incineration is a poor investment
  • Produzione di energia (spreco di energia)
  • Ci sono migliori alternative – Zero Waste 2020
slide33

MODERN TRASH INCINERATOR

ELECTRICITY

TURBINE

WET SCRUBBER

SECONDARY

CHAMBER

DE-NOX

STEAM

FABRIC

FILTER

TEMP

< 200oC

CHUTE

BOILER

SEMI-

DRY

SCRUBBER

Ca(OH) 2

SUSPENSION

ACTIVATED

CHARCOAL

GRATES

AMMONIA

INJECTION

TRASH

FLY ASH

BOTTOM ASH

politicians often approve incineration before they have any idea where the toxic ash is going to go
Politicians often approve incineration before they have any idea where the toxic ash is going to go!
ash disposal in other countries
Ash disposal in other countries
  • Germany puts fly ash into nylon bags and buries them in salt mines (like nuclear waste)
  • Some Japanese incinerators vitrify the ash
  • Denmark has a wonderful solution … it
  • sends its ash to Norway!
  • The Netherlands puts the fly ash into asphalt and the bottom ash into road building!
slide37

AIR EMISSIONS

CO2 + H2O

ACID GASES:

HCI, HF, SO2

NOx

TOXIC METALS:

Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr etc

NEW COMPOUNDS:

PCB’s

PCDDs (DIOXINS)

PCDFs (FURANS)

ETC

NANO

PARTICLES

slide40

Catalytic oxidizers

Brominated/chlorinated dioxins and furans

Polycyclic aromatic

hydrocarbons

Chlorinated

hydrocarbons

the dangers of nanoparticles
The dangers of nanoparticles
  • Nanoparticles are not efficiently captured by air pollution control devices,
  • travel long distances,
  • penetrate deep into the lungs
nano pathology
Nano Pathology
  • Nano particles are so small they can easily cross cell membranes
  • Including the blood brain barrier and the nuclear membrane
  • Ferry toxic metals into the brain
  • Stabilized free radicals cause oxidative stress - inflammation - many degenerative diseases
aggregati di piombo bario cromo ferro e silicio in cervello
Aggregati di Piombo, Bario, Cromo, Ferro e Silicio in Cervello.

http://www.nanodiagnostics.it/Fotografia.aspx?ID=11

dioxins major concerns
Dioxins - major concerns
  • Dioxins accumulate in animal fat
  • One liter of cows’ milk gives the same dose of dioxin as breathing air next to the cows for EIGHT MONTHS (Connett and Webster, 1987).
  • Dioxins steadily accumulate in human body fat. The man cannot get rid of them BUT A woman can…
  • …by having a baby!
  • The highest dose of dioxin goes to the fetus and then to the new born infant via breastfeeding, and
  • dioxins interfere with hormones which control sexual and mental development
slide47

WE WANT DIOXIN

OUT OF OUR BABIES!

institute of medicine 2003
Institute of Medicine, 2003
  • Fetuses and breastfeeding infants may be at particular risk from exposure to dioxins due to their potential to cause adverse neurodevelopmental… and immune system effects…
institute of medicine 20031
Institute of Medicine, 2003
  • …The committee recommends:
  • 1) the government place a high public health priority on reducing dioxin intakes by girls and young women in the years well before pregnancy is likely to occur
  • 2) (By) substituting low-fat or skim milk, for whole milk…and other foods lower in animal fat
thermal treatment is dangerous
Thermal treatment is dangerous
  • In citiesbecause the fine particles can get deep down into our lungs
  • In rural areas because the dioxins can get into our food
slide51
While modern incinerators have reduced dioxin emissionsthere is no real accountabilityin most countries
slide52

YOU NEED THREE THINGS TO PROTECT THE PUBLIC FROM TOXIC EMISSIONS.

STRONG

REGULATIONS

ADEQUATE

MONITORING

TOUGH

ENFORCEMENT

IF ANY LINK IS WEAK THE PUBLIC IS NOT PROTECTED

3 incineration is extremely unpopular
3. Incineration is extremely unpopular
  • In the US over 300 incinerator proposals defeated since 1985
  • US has not permitted a new trash incinerator since 1995.
4 incineration is a poor investment
4. Incineration is a poor investment
  • Most of the money spent on incinerators goes into complicated machinery and leaves the community, whereas
  • The money spent on the alternatives goes into jobs and stays in the community.
5 incineration is a waste of energy
5. Incineration is a waste of energy!
  • 3-4 times more energy saved by reusing objects and recycling materials in waste stream.
  • In Italy a law passed in 1996 allows incinerators to sell electricity at three times the price from other sources. The public pays!
  • This explains the current rush to build new incinerators in Italy even though they are so unpopular.
  • The Alberta government has just provided a $20 million subsidy for a new incinerator in Edmonton
slide58

“Anche rendendo sicuro l’incenerimento,

Esso non sarà mai una cosa sensata.

Semplicemente non ha senso

spendere così tanti soldi

Per distruggere risorse che dovremmo

Risparmiare per il futuro.”

(PC)

slide61

RIFIUTI ZERO 2020

SÌ A UNA

SOCIETA’ SOSTENIBILE

NO ALLASOCIETA’

USA E GETTA

SPOSTARSI A MONTE

Progettare i rifiuti all’esterno del ciclo produttivo

NO ALL’INCENERIMENTO

NO ALLE DISCARICHE

per ottenere zero rifiuti
Per ottenere Zero Rifiuti

Occorrono tre cose

RESPONSABILITA’ INDUSTRIALE (a monte)

RESPONSABILITA’ della COMUNITA’ (a valle)

3) Una BUONA LEADERSHIP POLITICA (per saldare insieme entrambe)

responsabilita industriale
RESPONSABILITA’ INDUSTRIALE
  • 1. PROGETTO INDUSTRIALE DI SOSTENIBILITA’
  • 2.PRODUZIONE PULITA - riduzione di elementi tossici nei prodotti e nella produzione
  • 3.RESPONSAILITA’ DELLA CATENA DI PRODUZIONE (EPR = EXTENDED PRODUCER RESPONSIBILITY)
extended producer responsibilty
Extended Producer Responsibilty
  • In futuro le imprese produttrici dovrebbero considerare di dover ritirare I propri prodotti e confezioni, dopo l’uso
  • leggi si stanno gia’ muovendo in questa direzione.
extended producer responsibilty1
Extended Producer Responsibilty

XEROX CORPORATION EUROPErecupero di vecchie macchine fotocopiatrici da oltre 16 paesi

  • Raccolte in enormi depositi in Olanda, dove vengono smontate
  • Oltre il 95% dei materiali viene riutilizzato o riciclato!
  • Con un risparmio di $76 milioni nel 2000!!
ontario canada
ONTARIO, CANADA
  • The Beer industry has used refillable glass bottles for over 50 years
  • 98% recovered
  • on average each bottle reused 18 times
  • Refillable glass bottles 11 cents cheaper per serving than disposable bottles.
  • 2000 jobs in collection and cleaning
  • No cost to municipality
  • Packaging costs internalized
community responsibility classification of discarded materials
COMMUNITY RESPONSIBILITY Classification of Discarded materials
  • 1. Avoidables (e.g. throwaway plastic objects)
  • 2. Reusables (e.g furniture, appliances)
  • 3.Toxics (e.g paint, oil, batteries)
  • 4.Compostables (e.g. food scraps)
  • 5. Recyclables (e.g. paper, glass, metals)
  • 6. Residuals
  • Residuals = “bad industrial design”
responsabilita della comunita
RESPONSABILITA’ della COMUNITA’
  • Community responsibility begins with Source Separation (porta a porta)
  • One container for compostables(i.e. the organic fraction)
  • One (or more) containers for the recyclables
  • One container for the residuals
slide72

1

2

slide73

1

2

3

slide74

1

2

3

Impianto di

Compostaggio

slide75

Aerazione forzata

Aerazione Forzata

slide77

1

2

3

Impianto di

Compostaggio

Centrale

di Riciclaggio

slide79

1

2

3

Impianto di

Compostaggio

Centrale

di Riciclaggio

?

slide80

1

2

3

Impianto di

Compostaggio

Centrale

di Riciclaggio

?

Reuse &

Repair Centers

slide81

1

2

3

Impianto di

Compostaggio

Centrale

di Riciclaggio

?

Reuse &

Repair Centers

De-costruire

slide82

1

AVOIDABLES

Waste

Reduction

initiatives

2

3

Impianto di

Compostaggio

Centrale

di Riciclaggio

?

Reuse &

Repair Centers

De-costruire

italy
Italy
  • A supermarket chain near Florence is providing dispensers which allow customers to refill shampoo and detergent bottles…
slide85

1

AVOIDABLES

Waste

Reduction

initiatives

2

3

Impianto di

Compostaggio

Centrale

di Riciclaggio

?

Reuse &

Repair Centers

De-costruire

come gestiamo la frazione residua un momento cruciale della filosofia rifiuti zero
Come gestiamo la frazione residua: un momento cruciale della filosofia Rifiuti Zero
  • Incineration attempts to make the residuals disappear
  • Zero Waste 2020 needs to make the residuals VERY VISIBLE, because…
  • Frazione Residua = cattiva progettazione industriale
  • We need better (sustainable) industrial design for the 21st Century
nova scotia canada
Nova Scotia, Canada
  • They have built IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA
  • These buildings are built in front of the landfill - NO residuals can go to landfill without being screened.
slide91

IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA

PIU’

RICICLABILI

TOSSICI

IMBALLAGGI E OGGETTI

NON RICICLABILI

slide92

IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA

PIU’

RICICLABILI

TOSSICI

IMBALLAGGI E OGGETTI

NON RICICLABILI

DISCARICA TEMPORANEA

slide93

IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA

FRAZIONE

ORGANICA

SPORCA

PIU’

RICICLABILI

TOSSICI

IMBALLAGGI E OGGETTI

NON RICICLABILI

DISCARICA TEMPORANEA

slide94

IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA

FRAZIONE

ORGANICA

SPORCA

PIU’

RICICLABILI

TOSSICI

IMBALLAGGI E OGGETTI

NON RICICLABILI

STABILIZZAZIONE BIOLOGICA

DISCARICA TEMPORANEA

we need to improve on these facilities by adding a research center for the non recyclable fraction
We need to improve on these facilities by adding a RESEARCH CENTER for the non-recyclable fraction
slide96

IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA

FRAZIONE

ORGANICA

SPORCA

PIU’

RICICLABILI

TOSSICI

IMBALLAGGI E OGGETTI

NON RICICLABILI

STABILIZZAZIONE BIOLOGICA

DISCARICA TEMPORANEA

slide97

FRAZIONE RESIDUA,CENTRO DI RICERCA

FRAZIONE

ORGANICA

SPORCA

PIU’

RICICLABILI

TOSSICI

IMBALLAGGI E OGGETTI

NON RICICLABILI

CENTRO DI

RICERCA

STABILIZZAZIONE BIOLOGICA

DISCARICA TEMPORANEA

slide98

FRAZIONE RESIDUA,CENTRO DI RICERCA

IMBALLAGGI E ALTRI RIFIUTI NON RICICLABILI

Università locale

RICERCA SCIENTIFICA SU NUOVI IMPIEGHI DEI MATERIALI OTTENUTI DA RIFIUTI E MIGLIORE PROGETTAZIONE INDUSTRIALE

slide99

FRAZIONE RESIDUA,CENTRO DI RICERCA

TOSSICII

Università locale

RICERCA SCIENTIFICA

“FOR CLEAN

PRODUCTION”

slide100

1

AVOIDABLES

Waste

Reduction

initiatives

2

3

Impianto di

Compostaggio

Centrale

di Riciclaggio

?

Reuse &

Repair Centers

De-costruire

slide101

1

2

3

AVOIDABLES

Waste

Reduction

initiatives

Impianto di

Compostaggio

Centrale

di Riciclaggio

Residual Screening

&Reseach

Facility

Reuse &

Repair Centers

De-costruire

slide102

1

AVOIDABLES

Waste

Reduction

initiatives

2

3

Impianto di

Compostaggio

Centrale

di Riciclaggio

Residual Screening

&Reseach

Facility

Reuse &

Repair Centers

Household Toxics

De-costruire

consiglio
Consiglio:

La creazione di un

“Istituto Nazionale

per una Società Sostenibile”

Con funzione di coordinamento della ricerca locale e regionale presso il Centro per la Ricerca e lo Screening sulla Frazione Residua (= cattiva progettazione industriale)

incenerendo
Incenerendo …

… si convertono 3 tonnellate di rifiuti in:

1 tonnellata di ceneri tossiche

che nessuno vuole!!!

con la strategia rifiuti zero
Con la strategia Rifiuti Zero

Si convertono TRE tonnellate di rifiuti in:

1 tonnellata di risorse compostabili

1 tonnellata di risorse riciclabili

e

1 tonnellata di consapevolezza!

messaggio all industria
Messaggio all’industria:
  • Se non possiamo riutilizzarlo, riciclarlo o compostarlo,
  • l’industria non dovrebbe produrlo!!!
  • We need better industrial design for the 21st Century
impianto di separazone e centro di ricerca della frazione residua
IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE e CENTRO DI RICERCA della FRAZIONE RESIDUA
  • Will Italy be the first to build an impianto di separazone e centro di ricerca della frazione residua?
progress towards zero waste around the world
Progress towards Zero Waste around the world
  • www.zwia.org
  • Note over 50% of communities in New Zealand have declared a Zero Waste strategy
san francisco
San Francisco
  • Popolazione = 850.000
  • Carenza di spazio
  • 50% raccolta differenziata entro il 2000
  • 63% raccolta differenziata entro il 2004
  • 75% raccolta differenziata entro il 2010 (obiettivo)
  • 100% (or very close!)entro il 2020 – Zero Rifiuti
the green container
The green container
  • Receives the clean compostables (all organic discards)
the blue container
The blue container
  • Receives ALL the recyclables...
ontario
Ontario
  • The city of Markham (north of Toronto) has diverted 70% from landfill in 2 years.
italy porta a porta no vespa
ItalyPorta a Porta (no Vespa!)
  • L’italia ha uno dei migliori centri di ricerca al mondo per la progettazione di una raccolta porta a porta efficace ed efficiente di rifiuti riciclabili e organici
  • Scuola Agraria del Parco di Monza
  • Enzo Favoino
italy1
Italy
  • Over 600 communities in Italy are achieving over 50% diversion using “door to door” collection systems
slide121
Comunità in Lazio che hanno riciclato più del 50% dei rifiuti attraverso il sistema di raccolta porta-a-porta in un solo anno!
italy2
Italy
  • Novara - (near Turin, population = 100,000) achieved 70% diversion in just 18 months!
italy3
Italy
  • In the Treviso region…
slide124
RISULTATI QUANTITATIVI

AUMENTO % RACCOLTA DIFFERENZIATA

slide125

RISULTATI QUANTITATIVI

AUMENTO % RACCOLTA DIFFERENZIATA

slide126
DIFFERENZIATA COSTA DI PIU?

Costi di gestione senza raccolta differenziata

Costi di gestione con raccolta differenziata

slide127
La gestione dei rifiuti

nei Comuni del Consorzio Priula

Paolo Contò

Consorzio Intercomunale Priula - Villorba (TV)

consorzio@priula.it

another three reasons why zw 2020 is better than incineration
Another three reasons why ZW 2020 is better than incineration
  • Jobs!
  • Jobs !!
  • Jobs !!!
nuova scozia canada
Nuova Scozia (Canada)
  • 50% dei rifiuti sottratto alle discariche in 5 anni (Halifax ~ 60%)
  • 1000 posti di lavoro creati dall’aprile 1996
  • Altri 2000 posti di lavoro creati in industrie che usano i materiali separati
  • Nearly all the separated materials are re-used in Nova Scotia’s own industries.
una buona leadership
UNA BUONA LEADERSHIP

Abbiamo bisogno di leader politici e industriali dotati di

grandi visioni

immaginazione

e …

CHE NON SIANO NOIOSI

slide132

Chi tenta di risolvere il problema A VALLE pensa …

1. UNA TAZZA

2. UN SECCHIO

3. UNA POMPA A PEDALE

4. UNA POMPA ELETTRICA

einstein
Einstein

A clever person

solves a problem

A genius

avoids it!

conclusioni
Conclusioni

The Zero Waste Strategy addresses four key issues:

  • 1. Individuals must be more careful about what they buy
  • 2. Industries must be more careful about what they make
  • 3. Communities must be more responsible in the way that discarded materials are collected and handled
  • 4. Education has a key role in linking waste management to sustainability and the fight against Global Warming
conclusioni1
Conclusioni
  • The throwaway society contributes to global warming by wasting finite resources and wasting energy
  • Landfills and incinerators do not solve the problem but only hide the symptoms
  • The Zero Waste strategy by intensifying reuse, recycling, and composting and by tackling overconsumption and poor industrial design, reduces global warming and the other impacts of primary processing
slide138

Education

Sustainable

agriculture

Zero Waste 2020

Architecture

Industrial

design

Sustainable

Energy

Community

development

Sustainable

Economic

Development

conclusioni2
Conclusioni
  • Non abbiamo bisogno di inceneritori!
  • Esistono alternative
  • migliori più sicure,
  • migliori per l’economia,
  • migliori per i vostri figli, e
  • migliori per il pianeta.
the bad law
THE BAD LAW

Level of Pollution

Level of corruption

slide142

THE GOOD LAW

Level of Pollution

Public participation

slide143

Dio

ricicla,

il diavolo

brucia

the battle hymn of garbage

The Battle Hymn of Garbage

(Chorus)

We don’t want incineration

We don’t want incineration

We don’t want incineration

We know there’s a better way!

the battle hymn of garbage1

The Battle Hymn of Garbage

While we recognize our landfills

All are swelling with the waste

This doesn’t justify

A bad decision made in haste!

Let us put our heads together

So the problem may be faced

And we must do it now!

the battle hymn of garbage2

The Battle Hymn of Garbage

(Chorus)

We don’t want incineration

We don’t want incineration

We don’t want incineration

We know there’s a better way!

the battle hymn of garbage3

The Battle Hymn of Garbage

Mine eyes have seen the garbage

That’s a smoldering on the grate

We must stop incineration

Before it is too late

Unless we wish the dangers

We had better separate

And we must do it now!

the battle hymn of garbage4

The Battle Hymn of Garbage

(Chorus)

We don’t want incineration

We don’t want incineration

We don’t want incineration

We know there’s a better way!

no accountability
No accountability
  • Typically incinerators tested once or twice a year using 6 hour tests to check dioxin in flue gas.
  • These are collected with advanced notice to the operator
  • Thus, 18 (36?) hours of IDEALdata is being used to ESTIMATE 8000 hours of REAL operation.
  • THIS IS NOT SCIENTIFIC!
  • Two week sampling (The Amesa system) is now available. This system allows collection of 26 X two-week samples per year - i.e. continuous sampling
  • Most incinerator operators are not using the two week sampling system or other scientific monitoring.
hiding the name
Hiding the name!
  • Waste Incineration is so unpopular with the public that incinerator promoters have used a variety of names for plants that burn trash:
  • In US, they were called Resource Recovery Facilities and Waste to Energy plants.
  • In UK they were called Energy from Waste (EfW) facilities.
  • In Italy and France they are called “Thermal Valorization” and “Thermal Optimization”
  • Now all the rage are the descriptions: gasification,pyrolysis and plasma arc facilities.
the most appropriate name for incinerators
The most appropriate name for incinerators
  • RDF
  • Resource Destruction Facilities!
dobbiamo copiare la natura
Dobbiamo copiare la natura
  • La natura non produce rifiuti!
  • I rifiuti sono un’invenzione dell’uomo
  • Società sostenibile = società a rifiuti zero
  • Zero Waste is an idealistic goal,
  • but Zero Waste 2020 puts this goal into a realistic time frame