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Class Reptilia. Chapter 20. Class Reptilia. Reptilia - to creep Turtles, crocodiles, lizards, snakes, worm lizards, and tuatarans. Class Reptilia. First vertebrates to have amniotic eggs Extraembryonic membranes Protect the embryo from desiccation Albumen Cushions Moisturizes

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class reptilia

Class Reptilia

Chapter 20

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Class Reptilia
  • Reptilia - to creep
    • Turtles, crocodiles, lizards, snakes, worm lizards, and tuatarans
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Class Reptilia
  • First vertebrates to have amniotic eggs
    • Extraembryonic membranes
      • Protect the embryo from desiccation
      • Albumen
        • Cushions
        • Moisturizes
        • Food source
      • Yolk - supplies food
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Class Reptilia
  • Other adaptations for land
    • Impervious skin
      • Keratin epidermal scales
    • Horny tales
    • Water conserving kidneys
    • Enlarged lungs
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Class Reptilia
  • Subclass Anapsida – lack openings in the temple
    • Turtles
  • Subclass Diapsida
    • Lower and upper openings in the temporal region of the skull
    • Snakes, lizards, and tuataras
  • Subclass Synapsida – single dorsal opening in the temporal region of the skull
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Class Reptilia
  • Characteristics of reptiles
    • Skull with one surface
    • Respiration by lungs
    • Metanephric kidneys
    • Internal fertilization
    • Amniotic eggs
    • Very dry skin with keratinized scales
  • 17 orders of Reptilia
  • 4 Living orders of Reptilia
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Class Reptilia
  • Order Testudines
    • Tortoise and turtles
    • 225 Species of turtles
      • Bony shell
      • Limbs from internal ribs
      • Keratinized beak
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Class Reptilia
  • Carapace - dorsal portion of shell
  • Plastron - ventral portion of shell
    • North American box turtle has hinges
  • Eight cervical vertebrae
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Class Reptilia
  • Long Life span
    • 14 or more years
    • Up to 100 years
    • Sexual maturity seven or eight years
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Class Reptilia
  • Oviparous
    • Nest contain 5 - 100 eggs
    • Development lasts 4 weeks to one year
    • Independent young
    • Sea turtle conservation controversy
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Class Reptilia
  • Order Rhynchocephalia
    • Snout head
      • 2 living species of Tuataras
      • Burrow
      • Endangered species
    • Lizard-like reptiles
      • Virtually unchanged from extinct members
    • Tooth arrangement is the distinguishing factor
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Class Reptilia
  • Oviparous
    • Share underground nesting burrows with ground-seeking sea birds
    • Venture out of the burrow at dawn and dusk for feeding
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Class Reptilia
  • Order Squamata
    • Three suborders
      • Suborder Sauria - the lizards
      • Suborder Serpentes - the snakes
      • Suborder Amphisbaenia - worm lizards
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Class Reptilia
  • Lizards
    • 3,300 species
    • Two pairs of limbs
    • Upper and lower jaws unite
    • Vary in length
      • Few centimeters up to 3 m
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Class Reptilia
  • Habitat
    • Land Dwellers
    • Burrowers
    • Tree Dwellers
  • Reproduction
    • Most are oviparous
    • Some are viviparous or ovoviviparous
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Class Reptilia
  • Gecko
    • Habitat
      • Semitropical
      • Climbers
        • Adhesion disks aid
    • Nocturnal
    • Clicking vocalization
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Class Reptilia
  • Iguana
    • Thick Bodies
    • Short necks
    • Distinct Heads
      • Marine iguana
      • Flying iguana
        • Can fly 30 meters
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Class Reptilia
  • Chamelions - Group of Iguanas
    • Characteristics
      • Live in Africa and India
      • Arboreal habitat
      • Long, sticky tongue
      • Change color
        • Light
        • Temperature
        • Behavior
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Class Reptilia
  • Gila Monster and Mexican Beaded Lizard
    • Venomous lizard
    • Southwestern North America
    • Not fatal to humans
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Class Reptilia
  • Suborder - Serpentes
    • Snakes
      • 2,300 Species
        • 300 are venomous
        • 30,000 - 40,000 humans die each year
          • Most occur in Southeast Asia
          • < 100 Occur in the U.S.
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Class Reptilia
  • Characteristics
    • Lack limbs
    • Up to 200 Vertebrae
    • Skull Adaptations
      • Movable upper jaw
      • Each jaw moves independently
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Class Reptilia
  • Adaptations
    • Differences in eye focusing
    • Loss of left lung
    • Displacement of
      • Gallbladder
      • Right Kidney
      • Gonads
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Class Reptilia
  • Reproduction
    • Oviparous
    • Live birth
      • Boas
      • Garter snakes
  • Age of snakes
    • 135 million years old
    • Possible relation to caecilians
reptilia
Reptilia
  • Suborder Amphisbaenia
    • Double walk
    • Worm Lizards
      • 135 Species
      • Habitat
        • Specialized burrowers
        • Africa, South America, Caribbean, and Mideast
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Reptilia
  • Characteristics
    • Legless
    • Wedge shaped head
    • Single median tooth in upper jaw
    • Can move forward or backward
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Reptilia
  • Order Crocodilia
    • Greek - lizard
    • 21 species
    • Crocodiles, alligators, gavials, and caimans
    • Have existed for 170 million years
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Reptilia
  • Snout is elongated
  • Nostrils at the anterior end to help with breathing while mostly submerged
  • Breathe and inhale water at the same time
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Reptilia
  • Tail
    • Muscular, elongated, and laterally compressed
    • Used for swimming, attacking prey, and maneuvers
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Reptilia
  • Teeth
    • Laterally compressed teeth
    • Thrashing motion of capture
    • Swallow food whole
    • Death roll
  • Stomach
    • Gizzard-like
    • Swallow rocks and other objects
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Reptilia
  • Reproduction
    • Oviparous
    • Parental Care resembles that of birds
    • Nesting and parental care can be traced to common ancestor of both groups
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Reptilia
  • External Structures
    • Skin
      • No respiratory function
      • Thick, dry, and keratinized scales
      • Shedding of the scales is called ecdysis
      • Pheromones are secreted
      • Cryptic, Aposematic, and mimicry coloration
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Reptilia
  • Support
    • Skeleton resembles amphibian form
    • Skull is elongated
    • Secondary palate
    • Increase in cervical vertebrae
      • Atlas and axis increase head movement
    • Ribs can be highly modified
      • Cobra
      • Flying lizards
    • Autotomy - loss of a tail
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Reptilia
  • Movement
    • Prehistoric Reptiles
      • Many were bipedal
    • Reptile
      • Tetrapods
      • Primitive reptiles move like salamanders
      • Higher than most amphibians
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Reptilia
  • Nutrition and Digestion
    • Carnivores
    • Tongue
      • Turtles and crocodiles are nonprotrusible
      • Lizards and anurans have sticky tongues
        • May exceed the lizards length
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Reptilia
  • Snakes
    • Glottis is far forward to allow for breathing
    • Vipers have hollow fangs that are hinged on the maxillary
    • Coral, sea, and cobra snakes rigid fangs
    • Some cobras can “spit”
    • Venom glands are modified salivary glands
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Reptilia
  • Body Regulation
    • Gas Exchange
      • Three chambered heart
      • Sinous venosus is now a pacemaker
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Reptilia
  • Low oxygenated blood from right atrium to ventricle
  • High oxygenated blood from lungs to ventricle to left atrium
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Reptilia
  • Gas exchange
    • Across respiratory surfaces
    • Partitioned into spongelike chambers
    • Form a negative pressure mechanism for ventilation
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Reptilia
  • Temperature Regulation
    • Ectotherms
      • Can survive (-2 to 41 oC)
      • Need (25 to 37 oC) to live
    • Behavior is used for temperature regulation
      • Body orientation
      • Nocturnal
      • Panting
      • Blood diversion
      • Chormatophore dispersion
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Reptilia
  • Nervous and Sensory Functions
    • Cerebral hemisphere is larger than in Amphibians
      • Improved smell
        • Jacobson organ
        • Snakes can smell with their tongue
      • Improved vision motor coordination
      • Ears detect vibrations
      • Snakes have heat sensitive pit organs
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Reptilia
  • Optic lobe and Cerebellum are enlarged
    • Increased vision
    • More refined motor coordination
      • Independent eye movement
      • Different fields of vision
      • Dominant sense in most reptiles
      • Colored vision
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Reptilia
  • Excretion
    • Kidneys have more nephrons or blood filtering units (Metanephric kidneys)
      • More blood flow
      • Higher pressure
    • Excrete uric acid
      • Insoluble in water
      • Can be stored as a paste
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Reptilia
  • Osmoregulation
    • Reabsorption of water
    • Internal respiratory surfaces
    • Relatively impermeable exposed skin
    • Behavior
      • Nocturnal
      • Avoidance of hot surfaces
    • Storage of water in lymphatic spaces
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Reptilia
  • Reproduction
    • Eggs
      • Land dwelling is possible
      • Not completely independent of water
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Reptilia
  • Internal Fertilization
    • Egg shell forms after
    • Males have an intromittent organ
    • Sperm can be stored by the female
      • Turtles 4 years
      • Snakes 6 years
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Reptilia
  • Parthenogenesis
    • 6 families of lizards
    • 1 family of snake
    • Parental Care
      • Eggs are usually abandoned
      • 100 species of reptiles take care of their young
        • American alligator
        • Sex is temperature dependent