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Toru Yamamori [University of Cambridge]

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  1. 15 June 2006Southlands College, Roehampton University, LondonCRONEM Conference on Multicultural Britain:From Anti-Racism to Identity Politics to …?Multiculturalism without Essentialism:Stuart Hall, Homi Bhabha and Amartya Sen Toru Yamamori [University of Cambridge]

  2. Purpose To demonstrate the unique combination of theoretical standpoints within Sen’s theory of multiculturalism Ethical level : Liberalism Ontological level : Non-essentialism

  3. Outline • 1. Introduction • 2. Sen on Identity ethics and ontology • 3. Liberalism on Identity ethics • 4. Cultural / Post-Colonial Theories on Identity ontology • 5.Concluding Remarks

  4. 2. Sen on Identity • 1970s and 1980s : Introduced the ‘epistemic’ use of identity in the field of economics • 1990s - present : Critical of the ‘ethical’ use of identity in political philosophy and the real world (‘beyond identity’) Clarifying the ‘ontology’ of identity (‘plurality and choice of identity’)

  5. plural identity being an Indian and being an economist being an Indian and being a Caribbean versus communitarians (C.Taylor and M.Sandel) and S. Huntington

  6. identity choice constraints on choice internal and external identity there remains substantial choice at the level of internal identity Versus communitarians (C.Taylor and M.Sandel)

  7. beyond identity an ‘epistemic’ use of identity: “trying to know what others feel and what they see by placing oneself in the position of others” (‘impartial spectators’) an ‘ethical’ use of identity: “counting them as if they were the same as oneself” (‘identity-based reasoning/morality’)

  8. Justice beyond national identity plurality, choice and transcendence

  9. 3. Liberalism on identity Kymlicka justifies privileging national identity on three grounds: (1) The first reason is normative: “The freedom which liberals demand for individuals is not primarily the freedom to go beyond one’s language and history, but rather the freedom to move around within one’s societal culture, to distance oneself from particular cultural roles, to choose which features of the culture are most worth developing, and which are without value.” (p.91-92)

  10. (2) The second reason comes from the intellectual history of liberalism. Kymlicka argues that almost all of liberalist thought from J.S. Mill to J. Rawls presupposes, implicitly or explicitly, a nation as a unit where individual freedom is considered and guaranteed (ch. 4).

  11. (3) The third reason is an empirical fact which Kymlicka alleges. “[T]he liberal ideal is a society of free and equal individuals. But what is the relevant ‘society’? For most people it seems to be their nation. The sort of freedom and equality they most value, and can make most use of, is freedom and equality within their own societal culture. And they are willing to forgo a wider freedom and equality to ensure the continued existence of their nation.” (p.93)

  12. Figure 1: ethics and ontology on identity in liberalism and communitarianism

  13. 4. Cultural / post-colonial theories on identity • essentialism: “the assumption that groups, categories or classes of objects have one or several defining features exclusive to all members of that category” (Ashcroft, Griffiths and Tiffin (eds.) 2000, p.77) • Edward Said’s Orientalism

  14. 4.1. Three claims of non- (or anti-) essentialism • non-essentialism of nation and ethnicity • non-essentialism of identity (social constructionism 1) • non-essentialism of any notion (social constructionism 2)

  15. non-essentialism of identity (S. Hall and H. Bhabha) “The subject assumes different identities at different times, identities which are not unified around a coherent ‘self’. Within us are contradictory identities, pulling in different directions so that our identifications are continuously being shifted about. ……The fully unified, completed, secure and coherent identity is a fantasy. ……[W]e are confronted by a bewildering, fleeting multiplicity of possible identities, any one of which we could identify with – at least temporarily.” (Hall 1992, p.277)

  16. (1) non-essentialism of nation and ethnicity • (2) non-essentialism of identity (including (1)) • (3) non-essentialism of any notion (including (1) &(2))

  17. 4.2. Commonalities and differences between Sen and Hall / Bhabha • plurality historical or ahistorical? • choice collective and individual repetitive process

  18. “Identity is not as transparent or unproblematic as we think. Perhaps instead of thinking of identity as an already accomplished fact, which the new cultural practices then represent, we should think, instead, of identity as a ‘production’, which is never complete, always in process, and always constituted within, not outside, representation.” (Hall, 1990, p.51)

  19. “this is the moment when the term ‘black’ was coined as a way of referencing the common experience of racism and marginalization in Britain and came to provide the organizing category of a new politics of resistance, among groups and communities with, in fact, very different histories, traditions and ethnic identities. In this moment, politically speaking, ‘the black experience’, as a singular and unifying framework based on the building up of identity across ethnic and cultural difference between the different communities, became ‘hegemonic’ over other ethnic / racial identities – though the latter did not, of course, disappear.” (Hall 1987b, p.163-164)

  20. 5. Concluding remarks nothing new added here Ethical level : Liberalism Ontological level : Non-essentialism (Constructionism) of identity This is the purpose and a new insight of this paper

  21. Cultural / post-colonial studies FOR Sen Identity and agency Identity claims are political manipulations of people who seem to share one characteristic and therefore it is a sort of roll-call concept. Now it seems to me that agency relates to accountable reason. The idea of agency comes from the principle of accountable reason, that one acts with responsibility, that one has to assume the possibility of intention, one has to assume even the freedom of subjectivity in order to be responsible. That's where agency is located. (Spivak 1993, p.294)

  22. Sen FOR cultural / post-colonial studies a new universality / constructive universalism Universality means taking a risk in order to go beyond the easy certainties provided us by our background, language, nationality, which so often shield us from the reality of others. It also means looking for and trying to uphold a single standard for human behavior when it comes to such matters as foreign and social policy. (Said 1994, p.xii)

  23. Thank you very much! • Comments are welcome to ty232@cam.ac.uk

  24. Introducing the ‘epistemic’ use of identity into economics • Criticising the ‘ethical’ use of identity among political philosophy and the real world (‘beyond identity’) Clarifying the ‘ontology’ of identity (‘plurality and choice of identity’)

  25. But I won’t heed the battle call  It puts my back up  Puts my back up against the wall    (Sunday Bloody Sunday, U2)  Marcos is gay in San Francisco, a black in South Africa, Asian in Europe, …. an artist without a gallery or portfolio, a housewife in any neighborhood in any city in any part of Mexico on a Saturday night, a guerrilla in Mexico at the end of the twentieth century, ….  (a communiqué by Zapatista)