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Chapter 3: Independence (pages 90-116) Born in Blood and Fire
What was the context in which independence was gained? What events and ideas influenced the revolutions? Who was and who was not involved? To what extent were they involved? How did the outcomes of the revolutions match the founding ideals? Key Questions
European Context Bad government in Spain • Carlos IV drove state into bankruptcy • Increased taxes and sale of political offices for revenue • Resentment among Spanish Americans Violence and Invasion • Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815 • Imprisonment of Spanish king gave colonies de facto independence
European Ideas Fly across the Atlantic Liberalism + Sovereignty
Social hierarchies and revolutionary cries What was at stake for each of the four?
American rebellions begin slowly Mexico • Hidalgo inspires peasants, but “too indigenous for the Creoles • Father Morelos, a mestizo, energies creoles and lower classes Peru • Tupac Amaru II’s revolt of 1780s scare away creoles from uniting natives Venezuela + Argentine • Both had active creole movements against Spain • Movements helped by experienced horsemen !Viva la revolucion!
Creoles found themselves in a pickle “Nativism” • Too few Creoles for a revolution • Considered indigenous rebellions dangerous • Need to unite with lower classes to fight Peninsulars • Birthplace distinguishes “them” from “us” • Creoles, Natives and Mestizo were now Americanos • Peninsulars were not Americanos • Now Americanos v Peninsulars Uniting Creoles and Natives against Spain
Background Key differences • King Jao was living in Brazil to escape Napoleon • Jao left son to rule over Brazil when forced back to Portugal • New leader declared “Empire of Brazil” • No need to fight the king—the king declared independence • Imperial army too small to oppose declaration What about brazil?
Simon bolivar Jose de San Martin • Began revolutions in Venezuela • Moved to Ecuador • Finished the work of an Martin after he fled to Europe • Launched surprise attack from Argentina through Chile • From Chile, captured Lima, Peru • Made his way towards the center of the continent, but had to flee • Bolivar finished liberation in highlands The Liberators
Spanish Control Creole control • Patriarchy • Racism • Classicism • Patriarchy • Racism • Classicism Unfinished revolution?
Was Bolivar the Latin George Washington? Let’s ask the President Obama And Hugo Chavez!
Vocabulary to know Sovereignty Nativism Legitimacy Americanos