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PSY 321 Dr. Sanchez Obedience/Group Influence. Chapter 8: Group Processes. How do groups effect individual effort? How/when do groups make bad decisions? Are groups a sum of their parts? Applications = I/O, Business, Student Organizations, Class Group Projects . Goals.

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chapter 8 group processes
Chapter 8: Group Processes
  • How do groups effect individual effort?
  • How/when do groups make bad decisions?
  • Are groups a sum of their parts?
  • Applications = I/O, Business, Student Organizations, Class Group Projects
goals
Goals
  • Collective processes = presence of others on individual’s behavior
  • Group processes = individuals directly interact with each other
  • Group conflict = Reconciling differences
what is a group
What is a Group?
  • Groups consist of two or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence each other.
what is a group5
What is a Group?
  • A set of people who have at least one of the following characteristics:
    • Joint membership in a social category
    • Direct interactions with each other over a period of time (e.g., work colleagues).
    • A shared, common fate, identity, or set of goals (e.g., political groups).
    • Vary in “groupiness”
what is a collective
What Is a Collective?
  • An assembly of people engaging in a common activity but having little direct interaction with each other
  • Not a real group
    • Low in entitativity
  • Some social psychological processes are unique to real groups.
    • However, others affect both groups and collectives.
slide7

Collective Processes

The Presence of Others

social facilitation when others arouse us
Social Facilitation: When Others Arouse Us
  • How does the presence of others affect our behavior?
  • Triplett’s (1897-1898) fishing reel studies.
    • Children winding fishing reels alone or with others
  • Later research found conflicting findings.
    • Sometimes the presence of others enhanced performance.
    • At other times, performance declined.
  • What was going on???
social facilitation when the presence of others energizes us
Social Facilitation: When the Presence of Others Energizes Us
  • Social facilitation:
    • tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated
social facilitation when the presence of others energizes us10
Social Facilitation: When the Presence of Others Energizes Us
  • Cockroach Example:
    • Roaches navigate through a maze
    • Maze was a easy task
    • ½ roaches in the presence of other roaches
    • ½ roaches alone
    • Results: Roaches performed the task faster when other roaches were present than when alone.
social facilitation when the presence of others energizes us11
Social Facilitation: When the Presence of Others Energizes Us
  • Cockroach Example:
    • Roaches get through a maze
    • Maze was a difficult task
    • ½ roaches in the presence of other roaches
    • ½ roaches alone
    • Results: Roaches took longer to solve the maze when other roaches were present than when alone.
pool hall example
Pool Hall Example
  • Pool Hall Study
    • ½ below- average players
    • ½ above- average players
    • ½ unobserved
    • ½ observed
social facilitation when the presence of others energizes us14
Social Facilitation: When the Presence of Others Energizes Us
  • Zajonc’s Mere Presence Theory
    • all animals are aroused by presence of conspecific others
  • Bob Zajonc suggested that we can understand the influence others on performance by considering three factors:
    • Arousal
    • Dominant response
    • Task difficulty
social facilitation when the presence of others energizes us15
Social Facilitation:When the Presence of Others Energizes Us

PRESENCE OF OTHERS

EVALUATION

APPREHENSION

AROUSAL

DOMINANT RESPONSE

PERFORMANCE

IMPROVES

ON AN EASY TASK

(CORRECT RESPONSE)

PERFORMANCE

DECLINES

ON A HARD TASK

(INCORRECT RESPONSE)

evaluation apprehension
Evaluation Apprehension
  • Common to worry about others’ opinions
  • SF depends on whether evaluator is present
    • Blindfold study
social facilitation when the presence of others energizes us17
Social Facilitation:When the Presence of Others Energizes Us

PRESENCE OF OTHERS

DISTRACTION

AROUSAL

DOMINANT RESPONSE

PERFORMANCE

IMPROVES

ON AN EASY TASK

(CORRECT RESPONSE)

PERFORMANCE

DECLINES

ON A HARD TASK

(INCORRECT RESPONSE)

distraction conflict theory
Distraction Conflict Theory
  • Distraction Conflict Theory
    • Conflict between task and distracting stimulus creates arousal.
    • Maintains there is nothing uniquely social about “social” facilitation.
  • Which theory is correct?
    • Mere presence, evaluation, and attention
social loafing when others relax us
Social Loafing: When Others Relax Us
  • Ringelmann (1880s): Individual output declines on pooled tasks.
    • Def. “pooled”
  • Social Loafing: A group-produced reduction in individual output on easy tasks in which contributions are pooled.
social loafing when the presence of others relaxes us
Social Loafing:When the Presence of Others Relaxes Us

PRESENCE OF OTHERS

RELAXATION

DOMINANT RESPONSE

PERFORMANCE

IMPROVES

ON A HARD TASK

PERFORMANCE

DECLINES

ON AN EASY TASK

social loafing when many produce less
Social Loafing: When Many Produce Less

Adapted from Jackson & Williams, 1985; Sanna, 1992.

slide24

SOCIAL FACILITATION

Improve

on simple

tasks

Individual

effort

can

be evaluated

Evaluation

apprehension

Impaired

on complex

tasks

Presence of

others

Impaired

on simple

tasks

Individual

effort

cannot be

evaluated

No evaluation

apprehension

Improve

on complex

tasks

SOCIAL LOAFING

social loafing when the presence of others relaxes us25
Social Loafing:When the Presence of Others Relaxes Us
  • Procedure
    • Ps worked on a maze on a computer
    • Another P worked on same task in room
    • ½ Ps received simple maze
    • ½ Ps received complex maze
    • ½ Ps thought performance was unique
    • ½ Ps thought performance combined
  • Results???
slide26

Time to complete mazes

Difficulty of the mazes

deindividuation
Deindividuation
  • The repercussions of anonymity can be serious
  • Deindividuation refers to the reduction of normal constraints against deviant behavior
  • Examples?
slide28

Group Processes

Interacting with Others

group polarization
Group Polarization
  • When people in groups make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of its members
  • Persuasive Arguments Explanation:
    • Other members often have similar attitudes
    • Individuals are exposed to supporting arguments they hadn’t thought of before
  • Social Comparison Explanation:
    • People want to fit in with others in group
    • They sense the group’s position and adjust their own attitude even further in that direction to appear to “good” group members
group polarization31
Group Polarization
  • Social Categories Explanation:
    • Tendency to categorize in ingroups/outgroups
    • Ingroup members want to distinguish themselves from outgroup members
group polarization32
Group Polarization
  • You’re in a campus organization that supports Affirmative Action
    • You’re in favor of AA
    • You meet with group members who offer other arguments in favor of AA you hadn’t heard
    • You sense the group’s position, and in order to appear to be a “good” group member, you speak out even more strongly in favor of AA
    • You want pro AA groups to appear distinct and cohesive compared to anti AA groups
    • You leave even more in favor of AA, as do they
decision making groupthink
Decision Making: Groupthink
  • Excessive tendency to seek concurrence among group members.
  • Emerges when the need for agreement takes priority over the motivation to obtain accurate information and make appropriate decisions.
antecedents of groupthink
Antecedents of Groupthink
  • Highly cohesive groups
  • Group structure
    • Homogeneous members
    • Isolation
    • Directive leadership
    • Unsystematic procedures
  • Stressful situations
symptoms of groupthink
Symptoms of Groupthink
  • Overestimation of the group
  • Closed-mindedness
  • Increased pressures toward uniformity
consequences of groupthink
Consequences of Groupthink
  • Defective decision making
    • Incomplete survey of alternatives
    • Incomplete survey of objectives
    • Failure to reappraise initially rejected alternatives
    • Poor information search
    • Selective bias in processing information at hand
    • Failure to work out contingency plans
  • High probability of a bad decision
preventing groupthink
Preventing Groupthink
  • Avoid isolation by consult widely with outsiders.
  • Leaders should reduce conformity pressures.
  • Establish a strong norm of critical review.