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Individual Differences in Independent Behaviour. Conformers and non-conformers!. Individual Differences. BATs AO1 – Outline how gender and personality influence conformity and obedience Explain the importance of Locus of Control in relation to independent behaviour

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individual differences
Individual Differences

BATs

AO1 – Outline how gender and personality influence conformity and obedience

Explain the importance of Locus of Control in relation to independent behaviour

AO2 /3 – Analyse and evaluate research into the role of gender and personality in independent behaviour.

Homework – discuss the influence of individual differences on independent behaviour. (12 marks)

individual differences3
Individual Differences
  • Situational factors not the only explanation for Independent Behaviour.
  • In Milgram’s research some people were much more obedient than others regardless of the situation.
  • Milgram –’I am certain there is a complex personality basis to obedience and disobedience, but I am certain that I have not found it’
the role of personality
The Role of Personality
  • Conformers/non-conformers - Crutchfield (1955)
  • Locus of Control - Rotter (1966)
  • Attributional Style
  • Authoritarian personality – Elms and Milgram (66)
  • Compliant personality – Gudjonsson (89)
crutchfield 1955 conformity experiments

Taken from http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/crutchfield-conformity.html

Crutchfield (1955) Conformity Experiments
  • Refined Asch’s technique – participants (5 at a time) seated side by side in individual booths. Forbidden to talk to each other. No confeds.
  • 100 military and businessmen, all male, average age 34, coming from a variety of educational backgrounds
  • Various multiple choice questions projected onto the wall in front of the men
crutchfield 1955 conformity experiments6
Crutchfield (1955) Conformity Experiments
  • Findings – On questions relating to judgements and factual questions 30% conformed to the wrong answer when they thought that others were giving that answer.
  • 37% of army personnel agreed with the statement ‘ I doubt whether I would make a good leader’.
  • When tested privately none of them agreed with this statement!
crutchfield 1955 conformity experiments7

Taken from http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/crutchfield-conformity.html

Crutchfield (1955) Conformity Experiments
  • Crutchfield concluded that people conform for a number of different reasons.
  • Take it in turns to go into the corridor and find out what those reasons are, then fill in the worksheet.
  • First team to finish gets a prize!!
  • Extension: What are the flaws in the design of this experiment
authoritarian personality

Acknowledgements to Exploring Psychology p177

Authoritarian Personality
  • Authoritarian Personality = politically conservative, hostile, rigid morals, hate challenges to authority or deviations from conventional social behaviour.
  • Are Authoritarians more conformist and obedient? Read p177 and fill in worksheet
  • Elms and Milgram (66) – compared the personality of 20 obedient and 20 disobedient ppts from the Milgram expt using a test for Authoritarianism called the fascism scale (Adorno et al 1950)
authoritarian personality9
Authoritarian Personality
  • Obedient group significantly higher in authoritarianism than disobedient.
  • Fascism scale now old fashioned – Altemayer (81) used a more reliable and valid scale called the RWA (right wing authoritarianism) Scale.
  • Altemayer ordered ppts to give themselves shocks when they got a learning task wrong.
  • Positive correlation was shown between authoritarianism and the level of shock they were willing to give.
compliant personality

Acknowledgements to Exploring Psychology p177

Compliant Personality
  • Gudjonsson (89) proposed that compliance is a personality characteristic.
  • 2 factors make one person more compliant than another .. Read p177/8 and fill in worksheet
  • Eagerness to please
  • Avoidance of conflict
compliant personality11

Acknowledgements to Exploring Psychology p177

Compliant Personality
  • Gudjonsson (89) proposed that compliance is a personality characteristic.
  • 2 factors make one person more compliant than another ..
  • Eagerness to please
  • Avoidance of conflict
  • Less likely to defy authority or deviate from the majority, more likely to what they are told and follow others
compliant personality12

Acknowledgements to Exploring Psychology p178

Compliant Personality
  • Gudjonsson and Sigurdsson (2003) suggest in Milgram’s studies more compliant ppts showed the highest levels of destructive obedience.
  • Gudjonsson and Mackeith (97) – examined the role of compliance in false confessions of the Birmingham Six (arrested in 1974)
  • Ordered to confess by police and beaten until 4 obeyed. Jailed from 75-90 until released on appeal.
  • Using the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale in prison the 4 that confessed under police orders scored higher for Compliance than the 2 that resisted.
rotter 1966 locus of control

Acknowledgements to Cardwell and Flanagan – Complete Companion p164-5)

Rotter (1966) – Locus of Control
  • Locus of control = sense of control a person feels they have over their life/behaviour.

INTERNAL

EXTERNAL

Locus of Control

Person believes their behaviour is caused by their own personal decisions and efforts.

Person believes their behaviour is caused primarily by fate, luck or other external circumstances

internal or external loc
Internal or External LOC?

Read these scenarios and decide if the person is Internal or External.

Jenny always had her own ideas about fashion. She worked hard at school even when others in her class were messing about. She now has her own business as a fashion designer

Freddie worked in a bank, but has been out of work for 2 years. He blames it on the credit crunch. Every time he applies for a job he says there are too many others applying for the same job

Extension: Make up scenarios of your own to try on your group!!

rotter 1966 locus of control15
Rotter (1966) – Locus of Control

How does this relate to independent behaviour?

High Internals ..

  • active seekers of info useful to them, so less likely to rely on opinions of others.
  • More achievement oriented, so more likely to become leaders and entrepreneurs
  • Better able to resist coercion from others
  • Backed up by research by Anderson and Schneier (78) – internals more likely to emerge as leaders in groups
twenge et al 2004 are we becoming more external
Twenge et al 2004 – are we becoming more external?
  • Meta analysis – young Americans increasingly believe their lives are controlled by outside forces rather than their own behaviour.
  • Locus of control scores substantially more external in children and student samples between 1960 and 2002
  • Implications negative as externality is correlated with poor school achievement, less self control and depression.
twenge et al 2004 are we becoming more external17
Twenge et al 2004 – are we becoming more external?
  • Why is this happening?
  • Since 1960’s most Western countries have seen dramatic social change e.g increases in divorce rates, violent crime and mental health problems including suicide.
  • Tenge et al suggest that these social factors has seen an increase in externality, as young people see many aspects of their lives as beyond their control.
attributional style

Acknowledgements to Cardwell and Flanagan – Complete Companion p164-5)

Attributional Style
  • Attributional Style = a personality attribute that shows how people explain to themselves why they experience a particular event.
  • When people experience success or failure they work out what the causes were and learn from experience, thus developing their own attributional style.
attributional style19
Attributional Style
  • Psychologists have identified 3 components to Attributional Style …
  • Personal (i.e dispositional v situational) – see themselves as the cause of the event or may attribute the cause to situational factors
  • E.g ’I failed my A level because I’m stupid’ (dispositional, internal)
  • ‘I failed my a level because I used the wrong text book.’ (Situational, external)
attributional style20
Attributional Style
  • Psychologists have identified 3 components to Attributional Style …
  • Permanent – (i.e. stable v unstable)
  • The person sees the situation as unchangeable or changeable.
  • E.g. ‘It’s pointless retaking my A level, I’m just going to fail again.’ (stable)
  • ‘Next time it will be different’.
attributional style21
Attributional Style
  • Psychologists have identified 3 components to Attributional Style …
  • Pervasive – (i.e. global v local)
  • A person may see the situation affecting all aspects of their life or just restricted to one event.
  • E.g. ‘I can’t seem to do anything right.’ (global)
  • ‘Never mind, I can concentrate on my other subjects’. (local)
attributional style22
Attributional Style
  • Negative Attributional Style – people who generally blame themselves for negative events. (Dispositional)
  • Positive Attributional Style – people who blame others for negative events, Do not let negative events affect too many aspects of their lives and display positive explanatory style (situational)
attributional style23
Attributional Style
  • Positive Attributional Style –
  • This style more synonymous with Independent Behaviour as the person is able to resist the influence of negative life experiences that might otherwise have an adverse effect on how they approach similar events in the future.
attributional style heaven et al 2005
Attributional Style – Heaven et al (2005)
  • Studied young Australians to see if there was any association between attributional style and attitude to school.
  • Found significant differences between conformist, studious students and rebel students (rebelled against teachers and failed to do homework).
  • Rebels scored highest on negative attributional style.
  • May be due to them failing academically or socially in the past.
gender

Acknowledgements to Cardwell and Flanagan – Complete Companion p164-5)

Gender
  • Linz and Semykina (2005) – data from a survey of over 2,600 Russian employees between 200 and 2003.
  • Men more likely to have internal Locus of Control and a need for challenge
  • Women more likely to exhibit external locus of control and need for affiliation (belonging to a group).
  • High Internal females earned more than external women
gender26

Acknowledgements to Holt – The study guide p121-2

Gender
  • Milgram found no gender differences in obedience, but Sheridan and King found many more women than men would shock a puppy when told to do so.
  • Females tend to conform more, especially in face- to-face situations.
  • Eagly and Charvala (86) – no gender differences below age 19, but a difference in older ppts
match the personality type to the definition
Match the Personality type to the definition

People do not let negative events affect too many aspects of their lives. Tend to exhibit Independent behaviour.

Authoritarian

Compliant

People feel they have influence and control over their lives and are confident, positive, need little approval from others. Less likely to conform or obey authority.

Internal Locus of Control

Politically conservative, rigid morals, hates challenges to authority or deviations from conventional social behaviour. Conformist and obedient

External Locus of Control

Eager to please and would rather avoid conflict. Unlikely to defy authority or risk upsetting the majority

Positive Attributional Style

People feel things happen to them because of luck or fate. Need approval and prone to normative social influence. Likely to conform and obey authority.

try it out for yourself

Acknowledgements to Cardwell and Flanagan – Complete Companion p164-5)

Try it out for yourself!!
  • Design an investigation to compare locus of control in males and females.
  • How will you collect scores anonymously?
  • What other ethical issues might there be?
  • How will you overcome these ethical issues?
  • Draw a graph to show your findings. What type?
  • Are there any gender differences?
  • What do you think this means (conclusion)

EXTENSION: Is it good to be internal? Why or why not?

How could you make someone more Internal?

homework
Homework

Discuss the influence of individual differences on independent behaviour. (12 marks)

AO1 – Nature of Locus of control and how it relates to Independent behaviour.

Characteristics of Locus of control e.g. why are high internals more likely to be independent

AO2 – Evidence in research – Anderson and Schneier, Linz and Semykina, e.t.c.

Implications – more external teenagers - Twenge et al,