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Developmental Sequences in Second Language Learning. Presenters: Jacqueline dos Anjos, Hanna Heseker, Dana Meyer. Let ‘ s assume. Second Language Acquisition. Table of Contents. 1. Background: Influences in SLA 2. Grammatical Morphemes 3. Stages of Development 3.1 Negations 3.2 Questions

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developmental sequences in second language learning

Developmental Sequences in Second Language Learning

Presenters: Jacqueline dos Anjos, Hanna Heseker, Dana Meyer

slide2

Let‘s assume...

Second Language Acquisition

table of contents
Table of Contents
  • 1. Background: Influences in SLA
  • 2. Grammatical Morphemes
  • 3. Stages of Development
    • 3.1 Negations
    • 3.2 Questions
      • 3.2.1 Activities
    • 3.3 Relative Clauses
  • 4. Movement through Developmental Sequences
  • 5. More about First Language Influence
  • 6. Conclusion
background influences in sla
Background: Influences in SLA
  • High level of cognitive development
  • Mental lexicon of real-world concepts
  • Knowledge of L1 structures
  • Different learning environments and conditions

→ Learners develop an interlanguage: Various levels of success in their L2 acquisition

concept of grammatical morphemes
Concept of Grammatical Morphemes
  • What is a morpheme?

“smallest meaningful segment of a language“

  • What is a grammatical morpheme?

“a word that functions to specify the relationship between one lexical morpheme and another“

obligatory contexts
Obligatory Contexts
  • “Obligatory contexts“ in which specific grammatical morphemes must occur:

‘Yesterday I listened to that song three times.‘

slide8

-ing (progressive)pluralcopula (‘to be’)

auxiliary (progressive as in ‘He is going’)article

irregular past

regular past –edthird person singular –spossessive ‘s

Stephen Krashen‘s Natural Order Hypothesis

Source: Lightbrown, Patsy M. and Nina Spada. How Languages are Learned. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2006. 84.

reception of accuracy order
Reception of Accuracy Order
  • learners may only use morphemes correctly in certain contexts
  • Morphemes placed in wrong positions not taken into considerations
  • Results may depend on task construction
what this means for l2 acquisition
What this means for L2 acquisition...
  • developmental sequences identified in L2 acquisition are similar to those in L1 acquisition
  • Similarities in L2 acquisition of learners cannot be traced back exclusively to L1 transfer
questions12
Questions

1st stage

  • Dog? Four Children?
    • Single words, formulae, or sentence fragments

2nd stage

  • It’s a monster in the right corner?
    • Declarative word order, no inversion, no fronting with rising intonation

3rd stage

  • Where the children are playing?
  • Does in this picture there is four astronauts?
    • Fronting: do-fronting; wh-fronting, no inversion; other fronting
questions13
Questions

4th stage

  • Where is the sun?
  • Is there a fish in the water?
    • Inversion in wh- + copula; yes/no questions with other auxiliaries

5th stage

  • How do you say proche?
  • What’s the boy doing?
    • Inversion in wh-questions with both an auxiliary and a main verb

6th Stage

  • Question tag: It’s better, isn’t it?
  • Negative question: Why can’t you go?
  • Embedded question: Can you tell me what the date is today?
questions14
Questions

1st Stage

  • Single words, formulae, or sentence fragments 

2nd Stage

  • Declarative word order, no inversion, no fronting with rising intonation

3rd Stage

  • Fronting: do-fronting; wh-fronting, no inversion; other fronting

4th Stage

  • Inversion in wh- + copula; yes/no questions with other auxiliaries

5th Stage

  • Inversion in wh-questions with both an auxiliary and a main verb

6th Stage

  • Question tag, Negative question, Embedded question
relative clauses17
Relative Clauses

Source: Lightbrown, Patsy M. and Nina Spada. How Languages are Learned. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2006. 90.

movement through developmental sequences
Movement through Developmental Sequences
  • Stages in language learning are not like “closed rooms“
  • Stress situations may cause learners to fall back into an earlier stage
  • Learners may have difficulty moving beyond a stage when facing similarities between first and interlanguage patterns
more about first language influence
More about First Language Influence
  • First language interacts with developmental sequences
  • When learners reach a certain stage and perceive a similarity to their first language, they may linger longer at that stage
  • Addition of a substage
  • May learn a second language rule but restrict its application
phenomenon of avoidance
Phenomenon of “Avoidance“
  • Feature in the target language too distant and different from their first language → don’t try it
  • Extent of transfer has do to with the L2 learner’s beliefs about the distance between the L1 and the L2
  • Language acquirer
    • will typically avoid those structures that he is not sure are grammatical in the L2
    • knows that idiomatic or metaphorical uses of words are often unique to a particular language
conclusion
Conclusion
  • The idea of developmental sequences greatly facilitates our understanding of L2 acquisition
  • However, the concept of L1 transfer should always be taken into consideration when looking at L2 acquisition processes
list of references
List of References
  • Lightbrown, Patsy M. and Nina Spada. How Languages are Learned. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2006.
  • Saville-Troike, Muriel. Introducing Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006.
  • Cook, Vivian. Second Language Learning and Language Teaching. 3rd ed. London: Arnold, 2001.