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Explaining Second Language Learning I. Behaviourism Universal Grammar- an innatist perspective Krashen‘s „monitor model“ Cognitivist/developmental perspective Information processing Connectionism The competition model. Behaviourism. Second language applications: Mimicry and memorization

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explaining second language learning i
Explaining Second Language Learning I
  • Behaviourism
  • Universal Grammar- an innatist perspective
  • Krashen‘s „monitor model“
  • Cognitivist/developmental perspective
    • Information processing
    • Connectionism
    • The competition model
behaviourism

Behaviourism

Second language applications:

Mimicry and memorization

·Audiolingual methods

·Transfer of habits

audiolingual methods
Audiolingual methods
  • -Based on behaviour psychology
  • -New material presented in form of dialogue: How are you? I’m fine, thank you.
  • -Language learning is habit formation
audiolingual methods1
Audiolingual methods
  • -Students are dependent on mimicry, memorization of set phrases and over-learning
  • -Structural patterns are taught by using repetitive drills: the student repeats the utterance adding a few words. I used to know. I use to know him. I use to know him years ago when we were in school…
audiolingual methods2
Audiolingual methods
  • -Little or no grammatical explanations
  • -Vocabulary strictly limited and learned in context
  • -Successful responses are reinforced (praise,…)
  • -Great care is taken to prevent learner errors
transfer of habits
Transfer of habits
  • similarities of vocabulary that can influence the second language
  • Transfer structures of the first language to the second language
  • Translate word by word from the first language
universal grammar
Universal Grammar
  • Innate linguistic knowledge, which consists of a set of principles common to all languages
  • Chomsky: children can acquire every language during a critical period of their development >mainly used for first language acquisition
hypothesis of the critical period
Hypothesis of the critical period
  • Learning a language after the adolescence is more difficult
  • Adults that learn a second language show some type of deficit (coverall in phonetics and phonology)
universal grammar in l2
Universal Grammar in L2
  • Lydia White: cannot acquire full mastery, but there is still a „logical problem“
  • “logical problem“: knowledge which cannot be acquired by the input
  • Conditions for checking:
    • No acquisition by simple observation of L2 input
    • Phenomenon should work differently in L1 and L2
universal grammar in l21
Universal Grammar in L2
  • Effect of formal instructions on acquisition:

-change only in superficial appearance

  • Language acquisition based on availability of natural language in learner‘s environment
  • L2 learners need sometimes explicit grammatical information >errors of L1 transfer
  • Grammaticality judgements
krashen s monitor model
Krashen’s “monitor model”

Based in fivehypoteses:

  • Acquisition-learning hypothesis:

ACQUISITION: itisanautomaticprocess (liketheassimilationprocess of maternal language)

Example: immigrants, who arrive at a different country, acquire the local language only with errors.

LEARNING: the individual is able to explain the existing rules in the language (conscious process)

krashen s monitor model1
Krashen’s “monitor model”
  • The monitor hypothesis:

Thecreativeproductioniscorrectedbythelearner

It is possible with these conditions:a) the speaker needs to want to correct himself.b) the speaker mustknowthe rules.

krashen s monitor model2
Krashen’s “monitor model”
  • Natural order hypothesis:

Directlyrelatedtotheacquisition and nottothelearning.

Order of the acquisition of rules in the second language

Some rules are assimilatedbeforeothers

Orderisnotnecessarilythesame in thefirst and secondlanguage

krashen s monitor model3
Krashen’s “monitor model”
  • Input hypothesis:

The acquisition only occurs when there is a linguistical challenge

  • Affective filter hypothesis:

Affectreferstofeelings, motives, needs, attitudes and emotinalstates

If these states affect the learner the input will be unavailable for acquisition

slide16

Influenced teaching ideas that focus on meaning of language, rather than on simple memorization

    • Communicative Language Teaching, including Immersion Programs with content-based instructions
      • Emphasis on meaning, rather than on grammar or pronunciation
      • Learning to communicate through interaction in target language
slide17

Progress without direct instructions possible

  • Students can get to a point where guided instructions are necessary for further progress
cognitivist developmental perspective
Cognitivist/developmental perspective
  • Central role in research in second language acquisition since 1990s
  • Computer as metaphor for the mind
  • No specific module for language acquisition >contradict the innate perspective
  • UG for L1 acquisition, but not for L2

>no provable success for innate perspective

information processing
Information processing
  • Building up of knowledge, which is accessable when necessary
  • Beginning of learning process: have to pay attention to every aspect of language
  • “pay attention“: use cognitive resources to process information
  • Attention limit
information processing1
Information processing
  • Aspects become automatic through practice
  • Proficient learners: context
  • Non-proficient learners: single words
  • “practice“: production, exposure to, comprehension of language
information processing2
Information processing
  • “skill learning“ (J.R. Anderson, Robert DeKeyser)
  • Declarative Knowledge: knowledge that
    • Factual information stored in memory
    • Example: knowledge that Washington D.C. is

the capital of America

information processing3
Information processing
  • Procedural Knowledge: knowledge how
    • Knowledge of how to perform, how to operate
    • Example: Knowledge how to drive a car

>comparable to kind of learning in class room

information processing4
Information processing
  • „restructuring“: changes in language behaviour > sudden burst of progress or backsliding
  • Example: saw + -ed > sawed
transfer appropriate processing
Transfer appropriate processing
  • Information best retrieved in situation similar to the one during acquisition
  • Memories record context and way of how something was learned
  • Example: knowledge from drill/rule learning easier to access in non-communicative situations
connectionism
Connectionism
  • Based on stimulus- answer
  • Mental processingdependsondeveloping and usingtheconnections in themind.
  • Learning is a way to modify the behaviour (reinforcement of the wanted conduct)The wanted conduct cannot be modified using the basic principles of modification of conduct.
connectionism1
Connectionism
  • Technical to eliminate conducts not wanted in the student:
  • 1. Reinforcement of the wanted conducts

2. Debilitate the wanted conducts 3. thetechnique of " saturation" : repetitivewayuntilthe individual feelsindifferent of thebehavior.4. Changing the stimulus that influences the individual to take another answer to this stimulus.5. Using punishments to debilitate the conduct not wanted

the competition model
Thecompetitionmodel
  • Elizabeth Bates and Brian MacWhinney developed an explanation how monolingual speakers interpret the sentences
  • Languages emphasize speech: intonation, vocabulary, word order or inflections
  • If the speaker cannot consider some of these factors he will have problems with the understanding of the language
the competition model1
The competition model
  • Languageshavetheirownsignals
  • English has strictstructureslike SVO

English: Sheisgoingtothebeachthisafternoon.

Spanish: Ella se va a la playa esta tarde.

Italian: Lei va allaspiagaquestopomeriggio.

the competition model2
The competition model
  • Italian or Spanish have flexible grammar
  • Subject can beomitted
  • Order of thewords can change (VO/ VOS)

Spanish: Se va a la playa esta tarde. Esta tarde se va a la playa ella.

(isgoingtothebeachthisafternoon/ Thisafternoonisgoingtobeachshe)

Italian: Va allaspiagaquestopomeriggio. Questopomeriggio va allaspiaga.

the competition model3
The competition model
  • Nativesrecognizethesubject of thesentence
  • Nativesconcludewiththereasonableinterpretation

Spanish: El cerdo quiere al campesino. El campesino quiere el cerdo.

(Thepigwantsthefarmer/ Thefarmerwantsthepig.)

  • For non-native speakers this sentence is confusing.
the competition model4
The competition model
  • Fourcluesthathelpustoknowthe true subject

Word order:English SVO/ Spanish SVO/ VO/VOS.

Agreement: subjectagreeswiththeverb: English “He lives”

Case: thenounisthemostimportantcluetothesubject: German “IchliebeBier”.

Animacy: subject has to be someone or something that is alive.

question
Question
  • Krashen‘s Monitor Hypothesis:

Do you think that a learner can correct himself while he is learning a new language?