Explaining Second Language Learning I. Behaviourism Universal Grammar- an innatist perspective Krashen‘s „monitor model“ Cognitivist/developmental perspective Information processing Connectionism The competition model. Behaviourism. Second language applications: Mimicry and memorization
Second language applications:
Mimicry and memorization
·Transfer of habits
-change only in superficial appearance
Based in fivehypoteses:
ACQUISITION: itisanautomaticprocess (liketheassimilationprocess of maternal language)
Example: immigrants, who arrive at a different country, acquire the local language only with errors.
LEARNING: the individual is able to explain the existing rules in the language (conscious process)
It is possible with these conditions:a) the speaker needs to want to correct himself.b) the speaker mustknowthe rules.
Directlyrelatedtotheacquisition and nottothelearning.
Order of the acquisition of rules in the second language
Some rules are assimilatedbeforeothers
Orderisnotnecessarilythesame in thefirst and secondlanguage
The acquisition only occurs when there is a linguistical challenge
Affectreferstofeelings, motives, needs, attitudes and emotinalstates
If these states affect the learner the input will be unavailable for acquisition
Influenced teaching ideas that focus on meaning of language, rather than on simple memorization
>no provable success for innate perspective
the capital of America
>comparable to kind of learning in class room
2. Debilitate the wanted conducts 3. thetechnique of " saturation" : repetitivewayuntilthe individual feelsindifferent of thebehavior.4. Changing the stimulus that influences the individual to take another answer to this stimulus.5. Using punishments to debilitate the conduct not wanted
Spanish: Ella se va a la playa esta tarde.
Italian: Lei va allaspiagaquestopomeriggio.
Spanish: Se va a la playa esta tarde. Esta tarde se va a la playa ella.
Italian: Va allaspiagaquestopomeriggio. Questopomeriggio va allaspiaga.
Spanish: El cerdo quiere al campesino. El campesino quiere el cerdo.
Word order:English SVO/ Spanish SVO/ VO/VOS.
Agreement: subjectagreeswiththeverb: English “He lives”
Case: thenounisthemostimportantcluetothesubject: German “IchliebeBier”.
Animacy: subject has to be someone or something that is alive.
Do you think that a learner can correct himself while he is learning a new language?