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Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

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  1. Chapter 2 The Planting of English America

  2. Overview • By 1600 Spain had begun to transform the New World • Crops • Livestock • Disease • Conquest • North America remained unexplored and unclaimed • 3 European outposts on North America • Santa Fe - 1610 by Spain • Quebec - 1608 by French • Jamestown - 1607

  3. England’s Imperial Stirrings

  4. 1500’s England had little interest in overseas colonies • Henry broke with Church in 1530s • English Protestant Reformation begins • Elizabeth establishes Protestant as dominant religion in 1558

  5. Irish want to throw off protestant England’s rule • Wants Spain to help • England crushes rebellion • Confiscate Catholic lands • Begins conflict that still lasts today

  6. Elizabeth Energizes England

  7. Elizabeth promotes pirating of rich Spanish ships • Francis Drakethe best at pirating • Sailed around the world to avoid Spanish capture • Knighted by Elizabeth at protest of Spain

  8. Sir Humphrey Gilbert fails in attempt to colonize New Foundland • Inspires Sir Walter Raleigh • Landed in North Carolina in 1583 • Named land Virginia • Disappeared

  9. Spanish Armada invades England - 1588 • Philip II of Spain enemy of Protestant Reformation • Elizabeth turns down proposal of marriage • Drake a thorn in Spain's side • Soundly defeated by England • Beginning of decline of Spanish Empire • Holland would defy Spain • Caribbean would slip from Spain’s grasp • Spain would be in debt for years to come

  10. Spanish Armada invades England - 1588 • Defeat of Armada sees start of rise of British empire • Master of world’s oceans • England unified • Religious unity • Vibrant nationalism

  11. Golden Age of literature • Shakespeare • Spirit of self confidence

  12. England on the eve of Empire

  13. Enclosure system • Population growing • Farmers begin enclosing cropland for wool • Small farmers lose their land and begin to roam country side • End up in cities as beggars • Surplus population burdened England

  14. Primogeniture • Only eldest sons were eligible to inherit landed estates • Ambitious younger sons forced to seek fortunes elsewhere

  15. Joint Stock company perfected • Enables investors to pool capital for adventure

  16. Peace with Spain • Provided the opportunity for English colonization • Motives • Unemployment • Thirst for adventure • Thirst for markets • Religious freedom • Joint Stock companies provide financial means

  17. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling

  18. Virginia Company • Virginia Company receives charter to settle New World • Want gold • Want passage to India • Colonists expected to produce money within a few years • Investors expecting profits in a couple of years

  19. Virginia Company • Virginia Company charter extends rights of Englishmen to colonists • Practice enjoyed by later colonists • Left in 1606 • Settled on mouth of James River • Easy to defend but unhealthy • First years devastating • Many died of disease and starvation • New supplies lost in shipwreck

  20. Captain John Smith • Takes command • Saves colony • No work means no food • Smith makes peace with Powhatan Indians

  21. Starving Time • Of 400 only 60 survived winter of 1609-1610

  22. Lord De La War • Met colonists as they were leaving • New governor of Jamestown • harsh military regime • Aggressive against the Indians by 1625 only 1200 of 8000 survived

  23. Cultural Clash in the Chesapeake

  24. Poor Indian relations • Grew worse as colonists stole food from the Powhatans

  25. Irish Tactics • De La War introduced “Irish Tactics” against the Indians • Raided Indian villages • Burned houses • Burned crops • Confiscated provisions • Peace settlement ended First Powhatan War in 1614 when Rolfe marries Pocahontas

  26. Indians strike again in 1622 • Europeans declare perpetual war on Indians • Drove Indians further west

  27. Second Powhatan War in 1644 • Indians attempt to dislodge Virginians but fail • Peace treaty gave no hope of assimilation or peaceful coexistence • Separate Indians and whites forever

  28. Three D’s • Disease • Susceptible to new European diseases • Epidemics wiped out Indians • Disorganization • Powhatan Confederacy not strong enough to fight settlers • Disposability • Indians were of no economic use • Could not be taken as slaves because they would escape • Had what colonists wanted: land

  29. The Indians’ New World

  30. European Colonization • European colonization disrupted Indian life on a large scale • Had been used to small changes and adaptations • Horses changed the Plains Indians lifestyle • Became nomadic warriors and hunters

  31. Disease • Disease the biggest disrupter • Extinguished entire cultures and help set up new ones • Killed elders who held key to unity • Indians had to reinvent themselves • Forced to migrate west and formed new groups

  32. Trade transforms Indian life • Firearms gave advantage tot hose who could purchase them • Intensified rivalry among Indians • Indian against Indian • Interior Indians had time and space to face the colonists • Some formed powerful groups • Europeans forced to conform to Indian ways for trade purposes

  33. Virginia: Child of Tobacco

  34. John Rolfe • Father of tobacco industry • 1612 perfected methods of raising and curing the pungent weed • European demand grew • Colonists hunger for land to plant tobacco and make money • Pressed the frontier

  35. John Rolfe

  36. Tobacco puts Virginia on solid economic base • Tobacco ruins the soil • Forced Virginia to rely on single crop • Also brought cheap black labor for tobacco plantations

  37. 1619 Dutch arrive • Bring first group of black slaves to America • Grew slowly • Too costly for Americans at the time

  38. Representative self-government born in Virginia • House of Burgesses assembled in 1619 • First of many mini Parliaments in New World • James I dissolved Virginia Company and House of Burgesses in 1624

  39. House of Burgesses • After his arrival in Jamestown in 1619, Governor George Yeardley immediately gave notice that the Virginia colony would establish a legislative assembly. This assembly, the House of Burgesses, first met on July 30, 1619.

  40. Maryland: Catholic Haven • Maryland prospered • Tobacco • Indentured servants • Freedom of worship • Maryland Toleration Act • Passed when Protestants flooded Maryland • Toleration for all Christians • Death for those who denied divinity of Christ (Jews) • Less toleration but cloak of protection for Catholics

  41. The West Indies: Way Station to Mainland America

  42. English began settling West Indies • Weak Spain and loose Dutch rule • Jamaica

  43. Sugar foundation of economy • Rich man’s crop • Had to be planted extensively to yield huge quantities • Extensive process to refine sugar cane • Only wealthy governors could invest in sugar plantations

  44. Sugar lords extend domain over West Indies • Import African Slaves to work plantations • Barbados Slave Codes - Gave masters virtually complete control over their laborers

  45. Sugar drowns out all other forms of agriculture in West Indies • Dependent on North America for food stuffs and basic supplies • Small farmers migrate to North America • Bring African slaves and Barbados Codes with them • Served as staging area for American slave system

  46. Colonizing the Carolinas

  47. Civil War in England • Puritans ruled under Oliver Cromwell • Colonization interrupted during bloody period

  48. Restoration Period • Empire building resumes • Carolina formed in 1670 • Charles II gives Lord Proprietors land to the Pacific • Want to grow food stuffs to provide sugar plantations and export non English products (wine, olive oil)

  49. Carolina becomes close economic ally with West Indies • Established slavery from immigrants from West Indies • Brought slave trade too • Slaves became major export from Carolina to West Indies and some to New England

  50. Savannah Indians • Want to migrate to Pennsylvania where relations were better with whites • Carolinas rain and annihilated the Indian tribes of coastal Carolinas by 1710