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Wave Exposure and its Effects on the Diversity of a Shoreline PowerPoint Presentation
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Wave Exposure and its Effects on the Diversity of a Shoreline

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Wave Exposure and its Effects on the Diversity of a Shoreline

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  1. Wave Exposure and its Effects on the Diversity of a Shoreline Anne Haley, Lauren Jonah, Riki Krentz, Jessica Hingley & Caroline Méthé

  2. Introduction - diversity • Healthand survivalof ecosystem • 2 variables: richness & evenness • Two diversity indices: Shannon-Wiener and Simpson’s • Physical & biological stressors affect diversity - eg. wave exposure

  3. Wave Exposure • Strong influence on diversity • Contradictory past research in animal species • More agreement in botanical species • Greater diversity in wave-exposed

  4. Effects of wave exposure • Research question: What is the optimal amount of wave exposure to yield the greatest diversity? • Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis • Our hypothesis: greater diversity at moderate → high → low • Three sites: low, moderate and high

  5. Methods • Indian Point, Greens Point and Bar road • 10 quadrants of 1x1m • 100m transect line

  6. Methods • Quadrant counts • Animal counts & estimates • % plant coverage estimates • Unknown species were taken back to the lab for further identification

  7. Results • No significant difference between sites • Data was not normalized • Diversity indices • Moderate → Low → High

  8. Results - Fauna

  9. Results - Fauna • Species diversity: moderate → low → high • Moderate wave exposure = highest alpha • Overall low beta (changeover in species)

  10. Results - Flora

  11. Results - Flora • Species diversity: high → moderate → low • High and low wave exposure = highest alpha • Overall high beta (changeover in species)

  12. Discussion • Support for the intermediate disturbance hypothesis • Moderate wave exposure = greatest species diversity • High wave exposure sites did not have greater diversity than sites with low wave exposure • These results were analyzed only on animal species, due to plant abundance was measured in percent coverage

  13. Discussion Crashing of waves on intertidal substrate (disturbance): independent variable Habitat disturbances: • Renew limiting resources: oxygen, nutrients • Prevent dominating species Excessive amounts = unsuitable habitat

  14. Discussion High Wave Exposure Greater number of plants • Plants are colonizers after disturbance due to succession No barnacles recorded • Desiccation, duration of emergence • Whiplash effect (Grant, 1997) • Fronds physically remove barnacles with wave motion • Interaction with whelks?

  15. Discussion Low Wave Exposure Very few plants were found • Soft, muddy substrate which does not provide a surface for fauna to grow

  16. Areas for improvement • Samples collected from the immediate surface • Some species gone unnoticed • Brief sampling time (low tide) • Estimations • Varying counting methods • Normalize data • Inaccurate identification • Little differences in barnacle and periwinkle species

  17. Conclusions • Species diversity was highest in areas with moderate wave intensity • Proven by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis • Balance of disturbances yields the greatest amount of species richness and evenness → diversity

  18. Questions?