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Cultural Diversity and its Effects on Learning and Teaching

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  1. Cultural Diversity and its Effects on Learning and Teaching Monica A. Devanas Teaching Excellence Center Rutgers University

  2. Diverse Students • motivational and learning characteristics of students different from white, middle class males • interplay of social and cultural diversity and learning style, curriculum content and instructional style

  3. Diverse Students • Social relational skills, values, characteristics • Information processing orientations and skills • Communication patterns • Learning styles and strategies • Motivational styles • Psychological characteristics

  4. Non-traditional Social interactions Peer cooperation Performance Visual perception Symbolic expression Narrative Traditional Independence Competition Verbal skills Cultural, Learning and Motivational Styles

  5. Females affiliation relationships collaborative- cooperative interaction Males separation autonomy competitive achievements Cultural, Learning and Motivational Styles

  6. Relational holistic, global intuitive social verbal nonacademic task oriented affected by opinions withdraw from drill style conflicts with school environments Analytical focus on detail sequential impersonal abstract academic task oriented not affected by opinions persist in drills styles matches school environments Learning Styles

  7. Experiential Learning Model Concrete Experience Testing Implications Observations and of Concepts in New Reflections Situations Formation of Abstract Concepts and Generalizations

  8. Experiential Learning Model Concrete Experience Testing Implications Observations and of Concepts in New Reflections Situations Formation of Abstract Concepts and Generalizations

  9. Experiential Learning Model Visual Concrete Experience Testing Implications Observations and of Concepts in New Reflections Situations ConnectedSeparate Formation of Abstract Concepts and Generalizations Verbal

  10. Learning Styles and Strategies Felder and Soloman Model Active/Reflective Sensing/Intuitive Visual/Verbal Sequential/Global http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSpage.html

  11. Effective Teaching Strategies • Concrete Experience- readings, examples, fieldwork, problems, observations, simulations, primary texts, films, games

  12. Effective Teaching Strategies • Concrete Experience- readings, examples, fieldwork, problems, observations, simulations, primary texts, films, games • Reflective Observation - logs, journals, discussion, brainstorming, thought/rhetorical questions

  13. Effective Teaching Strategies • Concrete Experience- readings, examples, fieldwork, problems, observations, simulations, primary texts, films, games • Reflective Observation - logs, journals, discussion, brainstorming, thought/rhetorical questions • Abstract Conceptualization - lecture, papers, projects, analogies, model building

  14. Effective Teaching Strategies • Concrete Experience- readings, examples, fieldwork, problems, observations, simulations, primary texts, films, games • Reflective Observation - logs, journals, discussion, brainstorming, thought/rhetorical questions • Abstract Conceptualization - lecture, papers, projects, analogies, model building • Active Experimentation - projects, fieldwork, homework, laboratory, case study, simulations

  15. UCLA Freshman Survey 1998 33rd year sampled: 383,815 students, 668 Two & Four Year Institutions adjusted: 275,811 students, 469 Institutions represent: 1.6 M entering 1st year students

  16. UCLA Freshman Survey • 82.9% Internet – educational, research tool • 65.9% email • 54.2% chat rooms • 72.9% “other” • 80.4% play computer games

  17. UCLA Freshman Survey private public black colleges email in HS 80.1% 41.4% homework 90.2 77.6

  18. UCLA Freshman Survey Interest in: Politics Law 1998 – 25.9%* 3.0%* 1997 – 26.7 3.3 1966 – 57.8 1989 – 5.4 * record low

  19. UCLA Freshman Survey Volunteerism in HS: 1998 – 74.2* 1997 – 73.1 1989 – 62.0 * record high

  20. UCLA Freshman Survey Academic Disengagement: (“bored in class” in HS) 1998 – 37.7* 1997 – 36.0 1985 – 26.4 * record high

  21. Implementing the Principles of Good Practice for Diverse Learning Styles Technology as the Lever

  22. Promising Instructional Technologies Visual Materials • artifacts • overhead projector and slides • computer graphic presentation • movies, video, videodisk

  23. Promising Instructional Technologies Visual Materials • artifacts • overhead projector and slides • computer graphic presentation • movies, video, videodisk Auditory Materials • tapes • instruments • human voices

  24. Classroom Technologies “Smart” Classrooms (HEFT) • see, hear, breathe • equipment: • overhead, ceiling, 16 mm, slides • VCR, CD/Video disk • computer connections • audio tape player/recorder

  25. Video Conferencing “Open your Classroom to the World” languages, cultures, literature, film Students at a Distance Research, Meetings, Seminars

  26. “EXTRA-classroom”Instructional Technologies • Electronic data bases • library • web-based • Graphic Data • Statistical Data

  27. “EXTRA-classroom”Instructional Technologies • Email • Listserv • newsgroups/discussion groups • “chat rooms” real time • web-based materials • on-line courses

  28. Uses of Email • Communication - Q&A, “virtual” office hours • Information distribution - FAQ’s, announcements • Course Organization - homework, assignments • Content Enrichment

  29. Intro to Macro & Micro Economics http://TeachX.rutgers.edu/gag

  30. Biomedical Issues of AIDS http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~devanas/AIDS

  31. Student’s Listserv Discussions • megan wrote: just a question to ponder.... how do you think life will change if a cure is found. do you think people will change their attitudes … • In respone to megan if there was a cure i think people will have another excuse to hace unprotected sex. I know many people who refuse to use… • For the past week or so, I have received many emaill messages about a conspiracy theory. It bothered me to hear that people had that little faith in their government….. • in response to what megan wrote...i think people will still have protected sex because the cure for AIDS is going to be very expensive, and besides … • I must say that for those of you who believe that our government would not withhold the cure for AIDS, have to much faith in their government…

  32. Listserv Discussion Groups • Group 2: Should convicted criminals be required to disclose their HIV status and/or be tested for HIV? • Many people agreed that, for the majority of cases, a criminal should not be forced to be tested and therefore disclose their information. Afterall, as someone stated, "having your personal medical records made public is not part of the sentence." Others felt that it would be too expensive to test everyone in prison and that the money could be used elsewhere. The fact is that other inmates would discriminate against the HIV positive person and a great deal of violence would occur. If you think about it, why should criminals be forced to be tested and/or forced to disclose their personal medical history just because they are in jail? Afterall, they don't test you for any other diseases in jail- why only HIV?

  33. Conferencing Software • Conferencing - Web-Based Discussion • Nicenet (http://www.nicenet.org) • NetscapeProfessional, Allaire Forum • WebCT (https://webct.rutgers.edu/) • conferencing • organization • testing

  34. Testing Software • Half-Baked Potato Software • http://web.uvic.ca/hrd/halfbaked/ • JBC on-line quizzes (multiple choice) • JQuiz (short answers) • Markin (annotate text) • PerfectMatch (beta preview) • http://biomedia.bio.purdue.edu/PerfectMatch/ • match image with concept

  35. Precautions for using Instructional Technologies • Purpose • Evaluation of Effectiveness • teaching • learning • Back-up plans • Reliance on Infrastrucure

  36. “Highly Interactive” Learning Model • Bork Model • “New Learning Structures” • learning and evaluation blended • frequent interaction (20 sec) • Socratic format • memory of learning style http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/html/erm9946.html

  37. Assessment • Student survey • Instructor satisfaction • Attendance • Graduates • quantitative scores

  38. “Seven Principles of Good Practice” Increase Contact Cooperation Active Learning Feedback Time on Task High Expectations Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning Chickering and Ehrmann 1996 IMPLEMENTING THE SEVEN PRINCIPLES: Technology as Lever. AAHE Bulletin

  39. Teaching Effectiveness Goal Research - Strategies - Assessment “Multicultural Teaching Repertoire” is…. …effective teaching for all students