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Manifest Destiny • John L O’Sullivan, newspaper editor “Away, away with all these cobweb tissues of rights of discovery, exploration, settlement, contiguity….Our claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federative self government entrusted to us….Oregon can never be to England anything but a mere hunting ground for furs and peltries…In our hands it must fast fill in with a population destined to establish a noble young empire…”
Effects of Western Expansion • Now that more land in the western areas of the continent belonged to America (a la the Louisiana Purchase), some of those areas were populated enough and were ready to become a state • Who remembers what law (first established in the Articles of Confederation) established the procedure for adding new land into the Union?
Manifest Destiny • The idea that God wanted the Americans to settle the west • Several inventions, such as the mechanical reaper and the steel plow, opened up the Great Plains to farmers
Manifest Destiny • Americans headed west for 3 main reason: 1 - the desire to own their own land (Homestead Act) 2- the discovery of gold and other valuable resources (California Gold Rush) 3- the belief that the US was supposed to stretch across North America (Manifest Destiny)
Manifest Destiny • Mormons: (a religious group) Settled Utah in hopes of finding religious freedom • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m7xGsg5qegY&feature=related • (watch only 1st 4 min..the rest is music) • In the 1820s, Americans began to settle in Texas, which was owned by Mexico, conflicts would lead to a war with Mexico
Manifest Destiny • 1800: 387,000 American settlers beyond Appalachian Mtns. • 1820: 2.4 million settlers • What does Manifest Destiny mean? • God had given Americans the right to settle from coast to coast on the American Continent
c. Describe reform movements, specifically temperance, abolitionism, and public school.
Temperance Movement • A movement aimed at limiting the consumption of alcohol: supported heavily by women • Alcohol abuse became widespread during the early 1800s • Pushed for laws to prohibit the sale of liquor
Abolitionist Movement • A movement whose goal it was to end slavery • The movement was tied to the Second Great Awakening which focused on sin and repentance, with slavery being one of the country’s greatest sins • In the 1830s William Lloyd Garrison became one of the country’s leading abolitionists, publishing the newspaper the Liberator
Abolitionist Movement • Fredrick Douglas, a former slave from Maryland, published the abolitionist newspaper the North Star • Sojourner Truth a former slave from NY, gave pro-abolitionist speeches
Educational Reform • Horace Mann, from Massachusetts, began a movement pushing for government funded schools and teacher training • Helped pass the 1st mandatory school attendance law in 1852 • Believed that citizens must be educated in order for the nation to survive and prosper
Women’s Reform • Elizabeth Cady Stanton helped organized the first women’s rights movement, called the Seneca Falls Conference • Susan B. Anthony leader in the Abolitionist and Women’s rights movement • Women stressed the need for Suffrage (having the right to vote)
Questions??? 1. Why did Americans want to move west? What effect did this have on the people who were already there? 2. What was the purpose of the Temperance Movement? 3. What was the purpose of the Abolitionist Movement? 4. Who was a main leader in Educational Reform? What did he do? 5. Where did the Mormons move to and why? 6. What is Suffrage?
Kicking A- and Taking Names Later… Much Later Andrew Jackson
e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy, expanding suffrage, the rise of popular political culture, and the development of American nationalism. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nyFhnZi8eUA&feature=related
Election of 1824 • Known as the “corrupt bargain” • Top Candidates: John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson • Because no clear majority- decision went to House of Representatives
Elections of 1824 and 1828 • Henry Clay (although out of the running) decided to back Adams • House of Representatives declare ADAMS the winner • Clay becomes Secretary of State • JACKSON IS FURIOUS! • Jackson begins to campaign for the next election immediately!
Rise of popular political culture • Jackson’s presidential campaigns caused an increase in public participation in politics: -Campaign rallies were first introduced -Mudslinging: Both sides accused the other of wrong doing and these accusations were turned into songs, buttons, and posters
Andrew Jackson -Voting rights were expanded in the early1800s, many working class men could now vote -Andrew Jackson wins the Presidential election in 1828-Jackson is seen as “The People’s President” -Was an orphan, had little formal education, fought in several duals, and was the hero of the War of 1812
Jacksonian Democracy 1.Jackson sought to strengthen the executive branch and weaken Congress 2. Wanted UNIVERSAL MALE SUFFRAGE expanded voting rights to men without property too! 3. Spoils system: appointed people to government jobs based on party loyalty 4. favored Manifest Destiny 5. Believed in Nullification 6. Opposed National Bank
American Nationalism • Believed that the US was superior to other nations and people: -Most had the same religion (Protestant), language, and culture -Should expand (Manifest Destiny) to spread this belief
Indian Removal Act • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PiVXJSXlptY
Did you get it? • Why was Jackson seen as the “People’s President” • What are some of the beliefs of Jacksonian Democracy? • What is nationalism?