Chapter 20 – The Industrial Revolution Begins Section 1 Dawn of the Industrial Age
Setting the Scene For thousands of years following the rise of civilization, most people lived and worked in small farming villages. However, a chain of events set in motion in the mid-1700s changed that way of life for all time. Today, we call this period of change the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain. In contrast with most political revolutions, it was neither sudden nor swift. Instead, it was a long, slow, uneven process in which production shifted from simple hand tools to complex machines. New sources of power replaced human and animal power. In the 250 years since it began, the Industrial Revolution has spread from Britain to the rest of Europe, to North America, and around the globe.
I. A Turning Point in History In 1750, most people worked the land, lived in simple cottages, made their own clothes and grew their own food
I. A Turning Point in History The rural way of life began to disappear and by the 1850s, many country villages had grown into industrial towns and cities
I. A Turning Point in History During the 1800’s, a series of interrelated causes resulted in the Industrial Revolution
Oddly enough, the Industrial Revolution was made possible in part by a change in the farming fields of Western Europe. The first agricultural revolution took place some 11,000 years ago, when people learned to farm and domesticate animals. About 300 years ago, a second agricultural revolution took place. It greatly improved the quality and quantity of farm products. II. A New Agricultural Revolution
A. Improved Methods of Farming The Dutch built dikes to reclaim land from the sea and British farmers practiced crop rotation The Dutch build a dike around an area to be drained of water. The water was then pumped into a series of drainage canals by windmills
Jethro Tull invented the seed drill that planted seeds in rows A. Improved Methods of Farming Tull's most original contribution was the seed drill. Tull's seed drill made sowing more economical and yielded greater amount of crops. In the past, farmers would scatter their seed by hand which was wasteful because many failed to take root. The seed drill allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths.
Rich landowners practiced enclosure, taking over and fencing off communal land B. Enclosure Movement
Farm output rose but many farmers were put out of work and migrated to cities, forming a large labor force for industry B. Enclosure Movement
The population boom of the 1700s was due more to declining death rates than to rising birthrates III. The Population Explosion
A third factor that helped trigger the Industrial Revolution was the development of new technology IV. New Technology Four of the major inventions of the 19th century: the lightning steam press, the electric telegraph, the locomotive, and the steamboat Spinning Jenny
One new power source was coal that was used to power the steam engine, built in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen A. An Energy Revolution
Improvements were made by James Watt, and the steam engine became a key power source of the Industrial Revolution A. An Energy Revolution
In 1709, experiments by Abraham Darby led to higher quality and less expensive iron B. Improved Iron Abraham Darby I (1678-1717) lays claim to the history behind a revolutionary process called 'coke-smelting'. The sulphur in most coal made the iron too brittle, but in 1709 Darby succeeded in smelting iron with coke.