Other factors that affect Climate:Ocean currents • Ocean Currents – sea water flowing from one place to another. (depth of 100m) • Impact on climate – equatorial heat is redistributed towards the poles. Cold ocean currents reduce coastal temperatures and vice versa. • Sea water is heated and moves because of ocean currents, the Coriolis effect, the size and shape of the body of water, and the heat and salinity of the sea water.
Continentality • Regions that are relatively unaffected by large bodies of water. • Impact on climate – regions in the interior of continents are hotter in summer and colder in winter. More extreme temperatures (bigger temperature range) • Oceans keep coastal regions cooler in summer and warmer in winter because water absorbs heat more slowly than does land, but it also takes longer for water to cool down
Monsoons • Are seasonal changes in wind direction which bring a sudden wet season in the tropics • Impact on climate – extremely heavy summer rains in monsoon regions. • In winter, cold temperatures in central Asia result in a high pressure cell so winds flow out of Asia towards the Indian Ocean • In summer this flow reverses when a hot area of low pressure develops in central India. Hot, moist winds blow from the ocean inland bring with it heavy rain for several months of the year.
Elevation • The height above sea level • Rain shadow – a dry region on the leeward side of a mountain • Impact on Climate – temperatures drop as elevation increases. Temperatures drop because with increased height air pressures lowers. This allows air molecules to spread out, in which case heat can escape more readily. The higher the altitude, the more distant from the heat source.
Maritime Climates Near water Moderating influence Summers are cooler and winters are milder than you might expect Cyclonic or orographic precipitation Ex: NL or BC Continental Climates Inland Extreme influence Warm, hot summers, and very cold winters Convectional precipitation Ex: Canadian Prairies Maritime vs Continental Climates