Oceanography. THE BLUE PLANET. The Ocean Floor. 1. Almost _____ % of the earth is covered by ocean. 71. 2. What are the four main ocean basins: Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic Ocean. 3. The largest ocean basin: Pacific. 4. What does bathymetry mean?
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Oceanography THE BLUE PLANET
2. What are the four main ocean basins: Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic Ocean
3. The largest ocean basin: Pacific
4. What does bathymetry mean? bathos = depth metry = measurement To measure the depth and shape (topography) of the ocean floor
What kind of map? Topographic Map of The Ocean
5. What do oceanographers use to measure the ocean floor? SONAR What is Sonar? Sound Navigation and Ranging Sound waves are sent down into the ocean They bounce back and the time it takes for the sound waves to return to the sender is measured This can be used to calculate the dept of the ocean
Satellites are also used to measure the ocean floor 6. How do satellites measure the ocean? Microwaves
7. Area between a continent and the ocean basin Continental Margin ?
Ocean Basin Floor Includes: Deep ocean trenches Abyssal plains Volcanic peaks – seamounts and guyots
8. Deep Ocean Trench
9. Name the parts of the ocean floor 1 2 3 4 Continental Shelf Continental Slope Abyssal Plain Continental Rise
10. Submerged Volcanic Peaks ? Seamounts
11. Near the center of ocean basinSystem of underwater mountainsLongest feature of the earth’s surface Mid Ocean Ridge
12. Magma risesTwo lithospheric plates are moving apartForms new ocean floor Seafloor Spreading
13. Mineral-rich, heated water escapes through cracksMinerals are deposited on the ocean floor Hydrothermal Vent
14. Materials that settle and build up on the ocean floor ? Seafloor Sediments The 3 kinds of seafloor sediment? Terrigenous Sediment Biogenous Sediment Hydrogenous Sediment
Minerals that come from the landGravel, sand, clay ? Terrigenous Sediment
Sediment that comes from other life formsBiological originShells, skeletons from marine animalsDead algae ? Biogenous Sediment
Minerals that crystallize on the ocean floorDissolved minerals or “salts” ? Hydrogenous Sediment
15. What type of energy resources do we get from the ocean floor? Oil Natural Gas Gas Hydrates Sand and Gravel Manganese Nodules Evaporative Salts
16. What are gas hydrates? Chemical structures made of water and natural gas. Created when bacteria break down organic matter trapped in ocean floor sediments.
17. What can we get from manganese nodules? Manganese (Mn) Iron (Fe) Cobalt (Co) Nickel (Ni) Copper (Cu)
18. Where do oil and natural gas come from? Decomposed microorganisms buried under marine sediments.
Natural Gas Natural gas is a hydrocarbon, which means it is made up of compounds of hydrogen and carbon. The simplest hydrocarbon is methane; it contains one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms.
Periodic Table of Elements 19 & 20 Atomic Number = number of electrons in the nucleus Atomic Weight or Mass = the weight of the electrons and protons
The Composition of Seawater OR What’s in it
Seawater contains salts21. What are salts? Dissolved substances 22. Seawater contains about ____ % salts. 3.5 23. The amount of dissolved materials or salts in seawater is called _________. salinity
24. Where do these salts come from? Chemical weathering of rocks Runoff from rivers and streams Volcanic eruptions in the ocean
Common salts found in seawater: Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Magnesium Chloride (MgCl) Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) Potassium Chloride (KCl) Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) Potassium Bromide (KBr) Hydrogen Borate (H3BO3) Strontium Chloride (SrCl2) Sodium Fluoride (NaF) - Table Salt
25. What are the 3 layers of the ocean? Surface Zone Transition Zone Deep Zone
Surface Zone Description: More energy from the sun Warmest layer Down to about 300 meters
TransitionZone Description: Area between surface zone and deep zone Temperature drops rapidly as you get deeper
Deep Zone Description: No sunlight A few degrees above freezing
Bacteria Single celled, microscopic organisms.
Comes from dead plants, animals, microorganisms Organic Matter
Chemical weathering of rocks Runoff
Surface Transition Deep
Plankton (floaters) Plankton (planktos) = _____________ Drift in the ocean currents Includes: Algae Animals (very tiny) Bacteria (microscopic) wandering