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Oceanography. THE BLUE PLANET. The Ocean Floor. 1. Almost _____ % of the earth is covered by ocean. 71. 2. What are the four main ocean basins: Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic Ocean. 3. The largest ocean basin: Pacific. 4. What does bathymetry mean?

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Oceanography


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    1. Oceanography THE BLUE PLANET

    2. The Ocean Floor

    3. 1. Almost _____ % of the earth is covered by ocean 71

    4. 2. What are the four main ocean basins: Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic Ocean

    5. 3. The largest ocean basin: Pacific

    6. 4. What does bathymetry mean? bathos = depth metry = measurement To measure the depth and shape (topography) of the ocean floor

    7. What kind of map? Topographic Map of The Ocean

    8. 5. What do oceanographers use to measure the ocean floor? SONAR What is Sonar? Sound Navigation and Ranging Sound waves are sent down into the ocean They bounce back and the time it takes for the sound waves to return to the sender is measured This can be used to calculate the dept of the ocean

    9. Satellites are also used to measure the ocean floor 6. How do satellites measure the ocean? Microwaves

    10. 7. Area between a continent and the ocean basin Continental Margin ?

    11. Ocean Basin Floor Includes: Deep ocean trenches Abyssal plains Volcanic peaks – seamounts and guyots

    12. 8. Deep Ocean Trench

    13. 9. Name the parts of the ocean floor 1 2 3 4 Continental Shelf Continental Slope Abyssal Plain Continental Rise

    14. 10. Submerged Volcanic Peaks ? Seamounts

    15. 11. Near the center of ocean basinSystem of underwater mountainsLongest feature of the earth’s surface Mid Ocean Ridge

    16. 12. Magma risesTwo lithospheric plates are moving apartForms new ocean floor Seafloor Spreading

    17. 13. Mineral-rich, heated water escapes through cracksMinerals are deposited on the ocean floor Hydrothermal Vent

    18. 14. Materials that settle and build up on the ocean floor ? Seafloor Sediments The 3 kinds of seafloor sediment? Terrigenous Sediment Biogenous Sediment Hydrogenous Sediment

    19. Minerals that come from the landGravel, sand, clay ? Terrigenous Sediment

    20. Sediment that comes from other life formsBiological originShells, skeletons from marine animalsDead algae ? Biogenous Sediment

    21. Minerals that crystallize on the ocean floorDissolved minerals or “salts” ? Hydrogenous Sediment

    22. 15. What type of energy resources do we get from the ocean floor? Oil Natural Gas Gas Hydrates Sand and Gravel Manganese Nodules Evaporative Salts

    23. 16. What are gas hydrates? Chemical structures made of water and natural gas. Created when bacteria break down organic matter trapped in ocean floor sediments.

    24. Gas Hydrate

    25. 17. What can we get from manganese nodules? Manganese (Mn) Iron (Fe) Cobalt (Co) Nickel (Ni) Copper (Cu)

    26. Manganese Nodules

    27. 18. Where do oil and natural gas come from? Decomposed microorganisms buried under marine sediments.

    28. Oil

    29. Natural Gas Natural gas is a hydrocarbon, which means it is made up of compounds of hydrogen and carbon. The simplest hydrocarbon is methane; it contains one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms.

    30. Periodic Table of Elements 19 & 20 Atomic Number = number of electrons in the nucleus Atomic Weight or Mass = the weight of the electrons and protons

    31. The Composition of Seawater OR What’s in it

    32. Seawater contains salts21. What are salts? Dissolved substances 22. Seawater contains about ____ % salts. 3.5 23. The amount of dissolved materials or salts in seawater is called _________. salinity

    33. 24. Where do these salts come from? Chemical weathering of rocks Runoff from rivers and streams Volcanic eruptions in the ocean

    34. Common salts found in seawater: Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Magnesium Chloride (MgCl) Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) Potassium Chloride (KCl) Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) Potassium Bromide (KBr) Hydrogen Borate (H3BO3) Strontium Chloride (SrCl2) Sodium Fluoride (NaF) - Table Salt

    35. Ocean Layering

    36. 25. What are the 3 layers of the ocean? Surface Zone Transition Zone Deep Zone

    37. 26. Ocean Layers Sketch

    38. Surface Zone Description: More energy from the sun Warmest layer Down to about 300 meters

    39. TransitionZone Description: Area between surface zone and deep zone Temperature drops rapidly as you get deeper

    40. Deep Zone Description: No sunlight A few degrees above freezing

    41. Ocean Life

    42. Bacteria Single celled, microscopic organisms.

    43. Comes from dead plants, animals, microorganisms Organic Matter

    44. Sand and Gravel

    45. Chemical weathering of rocks Runoff

    46. Volcanic eruptions in the ocean

    47. Surface Transition Deep

    48. Plankton (floaters) Plankton (planktos) = _____________ Drift in the ocean currents Includes: Algae Animals (very tiny) Bacteria (microscopic) wandering