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SOLUBILITY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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SOLUBILITY. Let’s Review some vocabulary!. solubility : The ability to dissolve a substance in water. solute : The substance being dissolved. solvent : The substance that the solute is being dissolved in. Water is considered the universal solvent! Why?

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    2. Let’s Review some vocabulary! solubility: The ability to dissolve a substance in water. solute: The substance being dissolved. solvent: The substance that the solute is being dissolved in. Water is considered the universal solvent! Why? solution: A mixture made of solute(s) and a solvent.

    3. Solutions Some solutions are good conductors of electricity. To understand conductivity of solutions we need to review covalent vs. ionic bonds:

    4. Conductivity of Solutions • Ionic bonds tend to break up in water, covalent bonds don't. • This is b/c the charged ions are attracted to the opposite partial charges on the water molecules. So the ionic compound is pulled apart in the water!!! • When the ionic bonds break, theyleave the ions floating around in the water as charged particles. That's important…

    5. Conductivity of Solutions • It’s important b/c electricity is carried by charged particles. So, a good conductor of electricity would be a sodium ion, Na+, or a chlorine ion, Cl-. (See where this is going?) • Covalent bonds do not have charged particles. • So solutions that have an ionic compound as a solute will conduct electricity well!!!

    6. Solubility Curves (Graphs) Solubility varies from one substance to the next. Therefore, we have solubility curves… graphs of solutes regarding the amount that will dissolve in a certain amount of solvent.

    7. How much KNO3 can be dissolved at 70oC in 100 cc of water? 120 g

    8. Reading a Solubility Curve Where the solutes cross they are equally soluble at that temperature. Amount of Solute dissolved is on the Y-AXIS) (Remember: Temp. is on the X-AXIS

    9. At what temperature are the solutes equally soluble? 28 oC (If you said 38, you were reading the wrong axis!)

    10. How much KNO3 can be dissolved at 50oC in 100 cc of water? About 75 g (Don’t forget units!!!)

    11. Q: At what temperature can 52 g of KCl be dissolved? 80 o C (Don’t forget units!!!)

    12. Q: How much NaCl can be dissolved at 60oC? 39 g

    13. Reading a Solubility Curve ForGases • The solubility curve for gasesare the opposite of the solubility curve for solids. • The solubility of a gas decreases as the temperature increases. Solid graph Gas graph

    14. Which substances on the graph are gases? NH3 and HCl

    15. Q: How much NH3can be dissolved at 65oC? 20 g

    16. At what temperature can 60 g of HCl be dissolved? 45 oC

    17. Saturated Solutions Saturation is when something has dissolved in a solution and no more of it will dissolve under normal circumstances. It has reached equilibrium.

    18. Unsaturated Solutions Unsaturated is just before the equilibrium is reached, so you can keep dissolving the substance into the solution.

    19. Supersaturated Solutions • Supersaturated is when you change the conditions so that you can dissolve more of the substance into the solution than it normally would. • If the solution is brought back under normal conditions, it will spit back out the substance. (Coca-cola is an example of a super saturated solution of CO2, when a bottle is opened it will attempt to reach equilibrium again by bubbling and fizzing. When it does reach equilibrium it becomes flat) • Another example is Rock Candy

    20. Super saturated Saturated Unsaturated

    21. Factors that Affect Solubility There are three main factors that will cause the rate of solubility (how fast a solute dissolves) to increase. Can you guess what they might be? • Stirring • Heating the solution • Increasing the surface area of the solute

    22. 1. A mixture made of solute and solvent is called a: • Solution • Solvent • Saturated • Solubility

    23. 2. Ionic bonds break up in water to form a conductive solution • True • False

    24. 3. Gases follow the same solubility curve as solids. • True • False

    25. 4. This is when you change the conditions so that you can dissolve more of a substance into the solution than you normally could. • Solution • Solubility • Saturated • Unsaturated • Super saturated

    26. 5. This is the substance that is being dissolved in a solvent. • Solute • Solution • Solubility • Saturated

    27. 6. At what temperature is Compound X and Y equally soluble? • 45 • 170 • 39 • They are not.

    28. 7. Which compound is considered unsaturated? • X • Y

    29. 8. The substance that the solute is being dissolved in is: • Solution • Solvent • Saturated • Solubility

    30. 9.How many grams of compound X is dissolved at 80 degrees ? • 140 • 70 • 120 • 80

    31. 10. At what temperature is 80g of compound Y dissolved? • 80 • 60 • 100 • 40