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December 2, 2009. Monster worm and sea star frenzy. Reading Ch. 14 Final Exam date: TU, Dec. 15 Material covered: Ch. 13, 14, 15, 16.

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December 2 2009
December 2, 2009

Monster worm and sea star frenzy

  • Reading Ch. 14

  • Final Exam date: TU, Dec. 15

    • Material covered: Ch. 13, 14, 15, 16

Deep under the Antarctic ice, a rare, colourful burst of starfish and 3m-long monster worms has been filmed by a BBC camera crew. Filmed in time-lapse, the extraordinary swarm of deep-sea creatures gathers to feed in a frenzy on the body of a seal, which had sunk to the ocean floor. Such a bounty of food may only occur once every ten years in the ice-cold waters of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. The images were taken by divers filming for the natural history series Life.

The time-lapse sequence revealed the feeding frenzy of hundreds of huge worms, starfish, brittle stars and sea-urchins.


Recap
Recap

  • Eastern margin

    • Rifting, lava expulsion

      • EX: The Palisades (NY-NJ)

  • Southern margin

    • Depositional basin, evaporites

      • Gulf of Mexico

  • Interior

    • Erosion and deposition

      • Navajo Sandstone (Zion NP)

  • Western margin

    • Undergoing compression

      • Picking up exotic terranes

http://ca.water.usgs.gov/groundwater/gwatlas/summary/geology.html

http://homepage.ufp.pt/biblioteca/GlossarySaltTectonics/Pages/PageS.html

http://www.planetware.com/picture/new-york-state-hudson-river-valley-us-ny156.htm


Sonoma orogeny
Sonoma Orogeny

  • Island arc collision

    • Forearc basin (Great Valley Grp)

      • Volcanic & ocean sediments

    • Accretionary prism (Fransciscan Cx)

      • blueschists

    • Foreland basin (Morrison Fmn)

      • Volcanic & terrestrial sediments

http://www.geol.umd.edu/~tholtz/G102/102meso1.htm

http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~afisher/Courses/Eart205/GradSeminarPhotos.html


Cordilleran orogeny
Cordilleran Orogeny

  • 1st phase: Nevadan orogeny

    • Granitic magma intrusions

      • Ex: Sierra Nevadas

      • Ex: Idaho batholith

http://www.eugenecarsey.com/camp/alabamahills/arches2.htm

http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/levin/0471697435/chap_tut/chaps/chapter15-04.html


Cordilleran orogeny1

Spring Mtns, NV

Cordilleran Orogeny

  • 2nd phase: Sevier orogeny

    • Low angle thrusts

      • Sevier thrust belt

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Lasvegasgeography.jpg

http://www.geology.wisc.edu/~chuck/Classes/Mtn_and_Plates/mt

http://geology.isu.edu/Digital_Geology_Idaho/Module5/mod5.htmns_westernUS.html


Cordilleran orogeny2
Cordilleran Orogeny

  • 3rd phase: Laramide orogeny

    • Uplift of basement rock and overlying sediments

    • Located further east

  • Why??

    • Very shallow angle thrust

      • No melting

      • Transfer of compressional forces

Sheep Mtn anticline, WY

http://www.geol.umd.edu/~tholtz/G102/102meso2.htm

http://www.geology.wisc.edu/~maher/air/air15.htm


Cordilleran orogeny3
Cordilleran Orogeny

http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-81/Intro/TopographicData/DEM/DEM.html

http://www.umt.edu/geosciences/faculty/sears/animation/latecretaceous.htm


Interior craton

Niobrara Fmn, KS

Interior Craton

  • Interior Seaway in late Cretaceous

    • Covered ~1/3 land area

    • Marine carbonate deposition

      • Niobrara Fmn

    • Oil, coal, gas origins

Morrison Fmn

http://cedarandsand.blogspot.com/feeds/posts/default

http://www.geo.wvu.edu/~wilson/geol1/lec43b/EHist7.htm

http://esp.cr.usgs.gov/research/fossils/ammonites.html


Life in the mesozoic marine seafloor
Life in the Mesozoic: Marine Seafloor

  • Paleozoic fauna gone

    • Bryozoans, crinoids, blastoids, tabulates, fusulinids

  • ‘Marine revolution’

    • Bivalves, gastropods took over

      • Ex: Inoceramids

  • Crinoids replaced by spiny or burrowing echinoids

  • Reef builders

    • Scleractinid corals dominate early

    • Rudistids clams dominated later

http://www.geo.vu.nl/~smit/inoceramus/inoceramid.htm

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cnidaria/scleractinia.html

http://www.geol.umd.edu/~jmerck/geol100/lectures/31.html

http://www.humboldt.edu/~natmus/lifeThroughTime/Cretaceous.web/index.htm


Mesozoic life water column

  • Planktonic life

    • Diatoms

    • Coccolithophores

    • Foraminiferans: globigerinids

Mesozoic Life: Water Column

  • Ammonoids

    • Changes in suture designs

      • Zig-zag to U-shaped to branched

    • Mesozoic index fossil

http://www.abc.net.au/dinosaurs/fact_files/ea/sealife/belemnite.htm

http://www.bedfordmuseum.org/collections/fossils/belemnites_2.htm


Marine vertebrates

  • Ichthyosaurs

    • Completely aquatic (live births)

  • Mosasaurs

Marine Vertebrates

  • Bony fishes

    • Primitive sturgeons

    • Teleosts with mobile jaws, swim bladders

      • Ex: Xiphactinus

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/seamonsters/factfiles/xiphactinus.shtml

http://www.artistwd.com/joyzine/australia/articles/dinosaurs/freshwater_plesiosaur.php

http://www.exn.ca/dinosaurs/story.asp?id=2000032152&name=creatures


Marine vertebrates1
Marine Vertebrates

  • Megalodon (shark)

    • Great White relative

http://www.fossilien.de/seiten/haizaehne/megalodon.htm