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Wednesday December 2, 2009 (Discussion). Write both the word equation and balanced formula equation for the following reaction. Solid zinc (II) sulfide reacts with oxygen gas to produce solid zinc (II) oxide and gaseous sulfur dioxide. Bell Ringer 12-2-09. Announcements.

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Write both the word equation and balanced formula equation for the following reaction.Solid zinc (II) sulfide reacts with oxygen gas to produce solid zinc (II) oxide and gaseous sulfur dioxide.

Bell Ringer12-2-09

announcements
Announcements
  • Our next test will be next Tuesday – 12/8.
sample problem
Sample Problem

Aluminum sulfate and calcium hydroxide are used in a water-purification process. When added to water, they dissolve and react to produce two insoluble products, aluminum hydroxide and calcium sulfate. These products settle out, taking suspended solid impurities with them. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction.

Al2(SO4)3 + Ca(OH)2→

Al(OH)3 + CaSO4

3

2

3

types of chemical reactions
Types of Chemical Reactions

Synthesis Reactions

Decomposition Reactions

Single-Replacement Reactions

Double-Replacement Reactions

Combustion Reactions

synthesis reactions
Synthesis Reactions

In synthesis reactions (also called addition reactions), two or more substances combine to form a new compound.

A + X → AX

2Mg + O2 → 2MgO

2H2 + O2 → 2H2O

16Rb + S8 → 8Rb2S

CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2

decomposition reactions
Decomposition Reactions

In a decomposition reaction, a single compound undergoes a reaction that produces two or more simpler substances.

AX → A + X

2H2O → 2H2 + O2

2HgO → 2Hg + O2

2KClO3 → 2KCl + 3O2

single replacement reactions
Single-Replacement Reactions

In a single-replacement reaction, one element replaces a similar element in a compound.

A + BX → AX + B

Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2

Cl2 + 2KBr → 2KCl + Br2

2Al + 3Pb(NO3)2 → 3Pb + 2Al(NO3)3

double replacement reactions
Double-Replacement Reactions

In a double-replacement reaction, the ions of two compounds exchange places in an aqueous solution to form two new compounds.

AX + BY → AY + BX

HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O

2KI + Pb(NO3)2 → PbI2 + 2KNO3

FeS + 2HCl → H2S + FeCl2

combustion reactions
Combustion Reactions

In a combustion reaction, a carbon-containing substance combines with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water, and releasing a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat.

CX + O2→ CO2 + H2O

CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O

C3H6 + 5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2O

activity series
Activity Series
  • The ability of an element to react is called the element’s activity.
  • An activity series is a list of elements organized according to the ease with which the elements undergo certain chemical reactions.
  • For metals, greater activity means a greater ease of loss of electrons, to form positive ions.
  • For nonmetals, greater activity means a greater ease of gain of electrons, to form negative ions.
activity series1
Activity Series
  • The order in which the elements are listed in an activity series is usually determined by single-replacement reactions.
  • The most active element, placed at the top in the series, can replace each of the elements below it from a compound in a single-replacement reaction.
  • An element farther down can replace any element below it but not any above it.
  • Activity series are used to help predict whether certain chemical reactions will occur.
activity series2
Activity Series
  • See Table 8-3.
    • Ex) According to the activity series for metals, aluminum replaces zinc.
      • We, therefore, can predict that the following reaction does occur:
      • 2Al + 3ZnCl2 → 3Zn + 2AlCl3
    • Ex) Cobalt cannot replace sodium
      • We, therefore, can predict that the following reaction does not occur:
      • Co + 2NaCl → no reaction
activity series3
Activity Series

Sample Problem

Sn + O2 → SnO2

Any metal more active than silver will react with oxygen to form an oxide.

Tin is above silver in the activity series, therefore a reaction will occur.

The product will be tin oxide,

either SnO or SnO2

activity series4
Activity Series

Sample Problem

Cd + Pb(NO3)2 → Pb + Cd(NO3)2

An element will replace any element below it in the activity series from a compound in aqueous solution.

Cadmium is above lead, therefore a reaction will occur to produce lead and cadmium nitrate.

activity series5
Activity Series

Sample Problem

Cu + HCl → no reaction

Any metal more active than hydrogen will replace hydrogen from an acid.

Copper is not above hydrogen in the series, therefore no reaction will occur.

activity series6
Activity Series

Question

How is the activity series useful in predicting chemical behavior?

It helps predict whether a chemical reaction will occur and what the product(s) of the reaction will be.

activity series7
Activity Series

Question

Based on the activity series, predict whether the following reaction will occur?

Ni + H2O →

No

activity series8
Activity Series

Question

Based on the activity series, predict whether the following reaction will occur?

Br2 + KI →

2KBr + I2

activity series9
Activity Series

Question

Based on the activity series, predict whether the following reaction will occur?

Au + HCl →

No

activity series10
Activity Series

Question

Based on the activity series, predict whether the following reaction will occur?

Cd + HCl →

CdCl2 + H2

2

activity series11
Activity Series

Question

Based on the activity series, predict whether the following reaction will occur?

Mg + Co(NO3)2→

Mg(NO3)2 + Co

continue worksheet
Continue Worksheet

Chemical Reactions and Equations

(Page 189)