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History of Tourism

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  1. History of Tourism

  2. Travel and exploration are basic to human nature. Man has traveled since the earliest times although the term tourism was used only in the early 19th century. Tourism is derived from the Hebrew word torah, which means studying, learning, searching. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  3. Early Tourism • Early tourism has two forms: • Travel for business • Travel for religious reasons Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  4. Travel for Business Throughout the history, merchants have traveled extensively in order to trade with other nations or tribes. The invention of money, writing and wheel by the Sumerians facilitated travel and exchange of goods. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  5. Travel for Business The early Phoenicians toured the Mediterranean as traders. Both the Greeks and Romans were well-known traders and as their respective empires increased, travel became necessary. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  6. Travel for Business At this time, there was also travel for private purposes. Roman traveler was largely aided by improvement in communications, first class roads and inns (forerunners of modern hotels). Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  7. Travel for Religious Reasons Took the form of pilgrimages to places of worship. Pilgrimages were made to fulfill a vow as in case of illness or of great danger or as penance for sins. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  8. Travel for Religious Reasons Besides Rome and Jerusalem, St. James of Galicia was the foremost destination of English pilgrims in the 14th century. Beginning in 1388, English pilgrims were required to obtain and carry permits, the forerunner of the modern passport. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  9. Tourism in the Medieval Period During the medieval period, travel declined. Travel, derived from the word travail, became burdensome, dangerous and demanding during this time. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  10. Tourism in the Medieval Period After the decline of the Roman Empire in the 5th century, roads were not maintained and they became unsafe. Thieves inflicted harm on those who dared to travel. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  11. Tourism in the Medieval Period No one during this time traveled for pleasure. Crusaders and pilgrims were the only ones who traveled. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  12. Tourism During the Renaissance and Elizabethan Eras With the Renaissance, a few renowned universities developed so that travel for education was introduced largely by the British. Travel for education became popular in the 16th century. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  13. Tourism During the Renaissance and Elizabethan Eras Under Elizabeth I, young men seeking positions in court were encouraged to travel to the continent to widen their education. This practice was gradually adopted by others in the lower social scale. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  14. Tourism During the Renaissance and Elizabethan Eras In time, it became recognized that the education of a gentleman should be completed by a “Grand Tour” of the cultural centers of the continent which lasted for three years. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  15. Tourism During the Renaissance and Elizabethan Eras The term was used as early as 1670. While apparently educational, the appeal became social. Pleasure-seeking young men of leisure traveled predominantly throughout France and Italy to enjoy the cultures and social life of Europe, with Venice, Florence and Paris as the key attractions. By the end of the 18th century, the practice had become institutionalized for the upper class of society. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  16. Tourism During the Renaissance and Elizabethan Eras As young men sought intellectual improvement in the continent, the sick sought a remedy for their illness in “spas” or medicinal baths. The term “spa” is derived from the Waloon word “espa” meaning fountain. Travelers immersed themselves in the healing waters. Soon entertainment was added and dozens of watering places became resort hotels. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  17. Tourism During the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution brought about major changes in the scale and type of tourism development. It brought about not only technological changes but also essential social changes that made travel desirable as a recreational activity. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  18. Tourism During the Industrial Revolution The increase in productivity, regular employment, and growing urbanization gave more people the motivation and opportunity to go on holiday. The emerging middle class combined higher incomes and growing education into annual holidays. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  19. Tourism During the Industrial Revolution To escape from their responsibilities and the crowded city environment, they traveled to the countryside or seashore for their holidays. This led to the creation of working class resorts near major industrial centers. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  20. Tourism in the 19th Century • Two technological developments in the early part of the 19th century: • Introduction of the railway and the; • Development of steam power Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  21. Tourism in the 19th Century The railroads created not only more business by providing reliable and cheap transportation but also more competition as various private companies invested heavily in hotels, resorts, and entertainment facilities. Thus tourism was transformed from a small business catering to the elite into the start of a mass market, that is travel by a large number of individuals. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  22. Tourism in the 19th Century The use of steam power provided the increased mobility needed by the tourism business. Steamers on the major rivers provided reliable and inexpensive transportation that led to the popular day trip cruises and the growth of coastal resorts near large industrial towns. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  23. Tourism in the 19th Century As tourism became organized in the later years of the 19th century, the organization of travel became an established institution. Travel organizers emerged. The first and most famous of these was Thomas Cook. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  24. Tourism in the 19th Century His first excursion train trip was between Leicester and Loughborough in 1841 with 50 passengers at a round trip fare of one shilling. The success of this venture encouraged him to arrange similar excursions using chartered trains. In 1866, he organized his first American tour. In 1874, he introduced “circular notes” which were accepted by banks, hotels shops, and restaurants. These were in effect the first travelers’ checks. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  25. Tourism in the 19th Century Other tour companies which appeared in Britain at this time were Dean and Dawson in 1871, the Polytechnic Touring Association in 1872 and Frames in 1881. In the United States, American Express was founded by Henry and William Fargo. As the 19th century drew to a close, photography and guide books became popular. A huge variety of guide books which dealt with both local and overseas travel were sold to tourists. The most popular of these was Baedecker, first published in 1839, which became the leading guide for European countries at the end of the century. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  26. Tourism in the 20th Century At the beginning of the 20th century, pleasure travel continued to expand, encouraged by the increasing wealth, curiosity and outgoing attitudes of the people as well as the increasing ease of such movement. World war I brought about many changes which influenced the volume of tourism. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  27. Tourism in the 20th Century Early post-war prosperity, coupled with large-scale migration boosted the demand for international travel. Interest in foreign travel was further enhanced by the first-hand experience of foreign countries. New forms of mass communication stimulated curiosity about other countries. In addition to the influence of posters and the press, the cinema, radio and television widened knowledge and interest in travel Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  28. Tourism in the 20th Century After world war I, forms of travel began to change radically. The railways as a means of travel declined with the introduction of the motor car. Motorized public road transport and improved road conditions led to the popularity of seaside tours. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  29. Tourism in the 20th Century World War II also led to the increased interest in travel. The war had introduced combatants not only to new countries but to new continents, generating new friendships and an interest in different cultures. Another outcome of the war was the progress in aircraft technology. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  30. Tourism in the 20th Century Air travel had become more comfortable, safer, faster and cheaper in comparison with other forms of transport. With the introduction of the Boeing 707 in 1958, the age of air travel for the masses arrived, hastening the decline of sea travel. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  31. Tourism in the 20th Century After the post-war recovery years, there was an increase in private car ownership. Travelers switched to the use of private cars and this change affected both coach and rail services. The private car provided flexible transportation which freed people from the schedules and fixed routes of public transport. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  32. Tourism in the 20th Century It encouraged the growth of excursions and short-stay holidays. Resorts near major centers of population benefited considerably. Road improvements brought more distant resorts closer to the major cities. The resourceful tour operators devised flexible packages. Hotels devised their own programs of short-stay holidays The demand for hired cars on holidays overseas also increased substantially. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  33. Tourism in the 20th Century The post-war economic recovery provided an increase in discretionary income and leisure which many people converted into increased recreation and travel. Due to labor negotiations and social legislation, the length of official and paid holidays increased. Governments have created more vacation time by incorporating isolated public holidays into the familiar long “weekends” throughout the year. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  34. Tourism in the 20th Century As business and trade prospered in the developed countries, business travel also flourished, leading to the demand not only for individual travel but also for conference and incentive travel on a world-wide scale. The 1970 have also seen the emergence of new patterns of tourism. As economic power has shifted between countries, new tourism generating countries arose, notably the oil-rich Arab countries and Japan. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  35. Tourism in the 20th Century Europe as well as the developing tourist-based economies of Asia have benefited from this influx. The Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia have strengthened their tourist attractions to appeal to new markets. Governments of many nations are encouraging the growth of both domestic and international tourism as a means of job creation, economic diversification, and source of foreign exchange. Beyond its economic significance, there is a growing realization of the role of international travel in promoting world peace and prosperity. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  36. Origin of Tourism in the Philippines • Tourism in the Philippines began when the original inhabitants of the country roamed around in search for food. • Inter-tribe travel occurred although mode of travel was crude. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  37. Origin of Tourism in the Philippines • A more recognizable form of tourism appeared in the Philippines when the country was discovered by Ferdinand Magellan and when galleons or wooden boats sailed between Mexico and the Philippines during the galleon trade. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  38. Origin of Tourism in the Philippines • During the American occupation of the Philippines, American were able to reach Manila after two weeks on board the Pan American Airways air-clippers. • In the 190’s steamship and the airline pioneers, the “China Clipper” and the “Manila Clipper” brought some passengers to Manila via Hong Kong. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  39. Origin of Tourism in the Philippines • The introduction of more comfortable and faster means of transportation gave the early impetus for tourism in the Philippines. • Travelers from the US, China, Japan and Europe were provided inland tours by entrepreneurs with their unregistered private cars and coaches called “colorum.” Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  40. Origin of Tourism in the Philippines • Colorum means illegal tour handling and the illegal use of private vehicles for public use. It was tolerated by the government authorities at that time since tourism at this time was not yet developed. • In 1952, the first tourism association in the Philippines was organized. This was the Philippine Tourist and Travel Association (PTTA) Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  41. Origin of Tourism in the Philippines • The Philippine Tourist and Travel Association (PTTA) which was organized to put together all existing travel establishments serving both domestic and international travelers. • The PTTA was funded by the government to promote the country’s tourism industry. • Later, the government organized the Board of Travel and Tourist Industry (BTTI) to regulate, supervise and control the tourism industry and to subsidize the PTTA as its promotional arm. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  42. Origin of Tourism in the Philippines • The Philippines has undergone economic, social and political crises starting in the 1960s up to the 70s which hindered the development and promotion of tourism. • Accommodations were inadequate and airline industries were not given much incentive to promote the Philippines as a visitor destination. • Due to the turbulent conditions in the country, the tourist industry was denied the peace and order, sanitation, financial support , and other important factors for tourism development Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  43. Origin of Tourism in the Philippines It was only in 1972, after the declaration of martial law when tourism in the Philippines prospered. This was due to favorable conditions such as safety of tourists, better services and sanitation facilities, more financial support from the government and the vigorous cooperation of the private sector. Thus the Philippines became a “bargain destination” to foreign visitors. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  44. Origin of Tourism in the Philippines As several tour groups arrived in the Philippines, more accommodations, food and beverage facilities and more airline frequencies were established. A temporary “tourist boom” existed in the Philippines in the early 70s. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.

  45. Tourism in the Philippines The Philippine tourism industry flourished in the 1970s and early 1980s but declined in the mid 1980s, with the average length of tourist stay falling from 12.6 days in earlier years to 8.9 days in 1988. In 1987, tourism growth was slower in the Philippines than in other Southeast Asian countries. About 1.2 million tourists visited the Philippines in 1992, which was a record high in the number of tourist visits since 1989. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tourism_in_the_Philippines

  46. Tourism in the Philippines In 2000, the Philippines' tourist arrivals totaled 2.2 million. In 2003, it totaled 2,838,000, a growth of almost 29%, and was expected to grow as much as 3.4 million in 2007. In the first quarter of 2007, the tourist arrival in the Philippines grew as much as 20% in same period last year. In 2011, the Department of Tourism recorded 3.9 million tourists visiting the country, 11.2 percent higher than the 3.5 million registered in 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tourism_in_the_Philippines

  47. Tourism in the Philippines In 2012, the Philippines recorded 4.27 million tourist arrivals, after the Department of Tourism launched a widely publicized tourism marketing campaign titled "It's More Fun In the Philippines". The tourism industry employed 3.8 million Filipinos, or 10.2 per cent of national employment in 2011, according to data gathered by the National Statistical Coordination Board. In a greater thrust by the Aquino administration to pump billions of dollars into the sector, tourism is expected to employ 7.4 million people by 2016, or about 18.8 per cent of the total workforce, contributing 8 per cent to 9 per cent to the nation's GDP. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tourism_in_the_Philippines

  48. Factors that Favor the Growth of Tourism Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D. • Rising disposable income for large sections of the population. • Growth in the number of retired persons who have the desire and the energy to travel. • Increase in discretionary time. • Greater mobility of the population. .

  49. Factors that Favor the Growth of Tourism Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D. • Growth in the number of “singles.” • Greater credit availability thorough credit cards and bank loans. • Higher educational levels. • The growth of cities. • Simplification of travel through the package tour.

  50. Factors that Favor the Growth of Tourism Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D. • Growth of multinational business. • Modern transportation technology. • Shift in values. • Advances in communication. • Smaller families and changing roles.