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11. Sociology of Tourism. Learning Objectives. Appreciate inordinate social impact travel experiences make on the individual, family, or group, and society as a whole—especially the host society.
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11 Sociology of Tourism
Learning Objectives Appreciate inordinate social impact travel experiences make on the individual, family, or group, and society as a whole—especially the host society. Recognize that a country’s indigenous population may resent the presence of visitors, especially in large numbers. Discover that travel patterns change with changing life characteristics and social class. Become familiar with the concept of social tourism and its importance in various countries. Perceive there are four extremes relating to the travel preferences of international tourists.
Negative Social Effects of Tourism on a Host Society Introduction of undesirable activities such as gambling Demonstration effect: local people want same luxuries, imported goods as tourists Racial tension Development of servile attitude of tourist business employees Trinketization of arts and crafts Standardization of employees roles Loss of cultural pride Too rapid change in local ways Disproportionate numbers of worker in low-paid, menial jobs Effects can be moderated or eliminated by intelligent planning and progressive management methods
How Individual Characteristics Influence Travel Behavior The impacts of AGE The impacts of INCOME The impacts of EDUCATION The impacts of SEXUAL ORIENTATION The impacts of DISABILITIES
The Emergence of Group Travel Patterns Travel clubs Low-priced group travel Public carrier group rates and arrangements Incentive travel groups Special-interest groups Social (subsidized) travel groups
Summary of Principal Social Effects of Tourism Vacations, special business trips among life’s most vivid memories Family vacations taken together among highlights of the year’s activities Visitors in an area can affect the living patterns of locals People of a particular country can have their lives changed Most satisfying relationships when hosts and guests meet and interact socially (i.e., reception, tea, cultural event) Tourists can be easy victims of crime; hosts can help them avoid dangerous places Resentment of visitors by locals can occur Tourism development can bring undesirable social effects (prostitution, gambling, drunkenness, unwanted noise, congestion)
Summary of Principal Social Effects of Tourism People living in cities are more interested in travel than those living in small towns or rural areas Wealthy people and those in higher social classes are greatly inclined to travel Increase in educational level in a population brings increase in travel Catering to people with disabilities increases travel markets Group travel and tours are popular ways to travel Social tourism is a form of travel where the cost is subsidized by the traveler’s trade union, government, public carrier, hotel, or association
Some Striking Anomalies of Travel Behaviors Desire for relaxation versus activity Desire for familiarity versus novelty Desire for dependence versus autonomy Desire for order versus disorder
Barriers to Travel Cost Lack of time Health limitations Family stage Lack of interest Fear and safety