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Growth of Colonial America

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  1. Growth of Colonial America Chapter 3

  2. Review! • Exploration and Settlement by France, Holland, and Spain • Dynamics • Desire for spices • Break Italian monopoly • Renaissance • Spain • Explorers • Columbus, Cortes, Coronado etc. • Three G’s • Negative impact on natives • France • Explorers • Overlap of settlements • Peaceful coexistence • Dutch • Henry Hudson • Colony in New York

  3. Establishment of Colonies • Every colony has to have a CHARTER from King • Aka permission • Types of Colonies • Corporate • Jamestown • Joint-stock companies • investments • Royal • VA 1624 • Direct rule by King • Proprietary • MD, PA • Gifts given to individuals by King

  4. Virginia • Government • Elected assembly 1619 • House of Burgesses • *assembly returns for tax under Charles I • 1628: bi-cameral • County-court system • Basic unit of government • Economy • Tobacco Plantations • 50 year depression • Workers • 1st White indentured workers • 90% of population for the Chesapeake • Soon slaves • Slavery a racial status in 1670 • Special Characteristics • Followed Anglican church • More men than women • Later big gap between rich planters and poor farmers = bacon’s rebellion • 1607 • Founder • Virginia Company of London • Purpose • Wealth, Northwest Passage • Type • Corporate • Joint-stock companies • Royal Colony in 1624

  5. Massachuesetts • Government • General Court • Towns send 2 delegates • Local government • Town meetings • Local administration • Determine qualifications for voting, holding office • NO separation of church and state • Economy • Not suited for farming • Lumber, fish, furs • Subsistence • Vibrant merchant class • BIG problem for Puritans • Workers • Some indentured servants • Mainly family members • Few to NO slaves • Characteristics • Dissenters- NO tolerance • Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson, Thomas Hooker • Dominated by Puritan influence • Creation of Public Education • Harvard – train ministers • 1620 • Founder • Puritans • Purpose • Escape religious persecution • Plymouth: separatists • MBS: puritans, “City Upon a Hill” • Type • Corporate • Joint-Stock Companies • Royal Colony in 1691

  6. New York • Government • Continually changed • Economy • Trade • Small-scale industry • Some agriculture • Vibrant merchant class • Sets up future issues with mercantilism • Workers • Indentured servants • Families • Few slaves • Characteristics • First multi-ethnic colony • 8 languages spoken • New Amsterdam (NYC) becomes major trading port • Influence of Swedish introduces log cabin • 1626 • Founder • Dutch • Originally called New Netherland • Purpose • Trade • New • Type • For Dutch: Joint-stock companies (Dutch West India Company) • 1664- • Taken by English • “bloodless battle” • King wants new way to raise revenue through rent and taxes • Royal Colony 1685

  7. Maryland • Government • Assembly (Royal influence) • Economy • Tobacco • Workers • Indentured servants • Slaves • Slavery recognized in as a status in 1661 • Special Characteristics • Religious issues • More Protestant farmers that Catholic planters • Act of religious toleration 1649 • 1633 • Founder • Cecil Calvert • Aka Lord Baltimore • Purpose • Catholic haven • Type • Proprietary • 1st one awarded • NEVER becomes Royal Colony

  8. Rhode Island • Government • Royal influenced • Usually independent • Economy • Agriculture dominant • Small farms • Modest in scope • Workers • Indentured servants • Families • Few slaves • Characteristics • Wanted religious freedom and tolerance • 1636 • Founder • Roger Williams • Purpose • Persecuted by MBC for belief in separation of church and state • Type • Proprietary charter given in 1664 • NEVER becomes Royal Colony

  9. Connecticut • Government • Wrote 1st constitution in History (1639) • Representative government with legislature • Popular vote • Governor chosen by legislature • Economy • Self-sufficient • Agriculture/ fishing • Workers • farmers • Characteristics • Future site of Pequot War • 1636 • Founder • Rev. Thomas Hooker • Purpose • Religious toleration • Left Mass. • Type • Proprietary Charter 1662 • NEVER becomes Royal colony

  10. Delaware • Government • Penn had a very hard time governing Delaware because the economy and geology was largely the same as that of the Chesapeake. He attempted to merge the governments of Pennsylvania and the lower counties of Delaware. Representatives from both areas clashed heavily and in 1701 Penn agreed in having two separate assemblies. • Economy • trade • Workers • Traders • Indentured servants • Characteristics • Delaware, like Philadelphia and unlike Maryland, continued to be a melting pot of sorts and was home to Swedes, Finns, Dutch, French, in addition to the English who constituted the dominant culture. • 1638 • 1702 granted from William Penn • Founder • Peter Minut • New Sweden • Purpose • Support Swedish trade • Type • Proprietary Became part of New York with “bloodless battle” against Dutch • Granted to William Penn in 1681 as part of his Proprietary • NEVER a Royal colony

  11. New Hampshire • Government • Early period: lack of government • Protected by MBC • Economy • Fishing, lumber • Workers • Self-sufficient • Characteristics • Pretty boring • 1638 • Founder • John Wheelwright • People from Hampshire, England • Purpose • Profit from fisheries • Type • Proprietary first • Royal 1668 • Created by King to take control away from Mass. • Royal Colony 1679

  12. North Carolina • Government • King appointed Governor • Economy • Tobacco, Rice, Indigo • Some plantations • More self-sufficient farms • *compatible with Mercantilism • Workers • Indentured servants • Some slaves • Characteristics • More self-sufficient farms than S. Carolina • Followed Anglican church • 1653 • Carolina’s divided in 1712 • Founder • Proprietors • Purpose • Sell land, make profit • Type • Proprietary • Land given to 8 nobles • Included South Carolina • Royal Colony 1729

  13. South Carolina • Government • King appointed Governor • Economy • Rice, Indigo • Plantations dominate • *works well with mercantilism • Workers • Native first • Slaves • By 1750 = 61% of population • Characteristics • Develops Rice crop • Leads to massive increase in Slavery • Followed Anglican church • Lots of interaction with natives • Yamessee • Queen Anne’s War • 1663 • Founder • Part of Carolina 8 Nobles • Purpose • To make profit through trade and selling land • Type • Proprietary • Royal Colony 1729

  14. New Jersey • Government • Proprietor appt. Governor 1st • King appointed Governor • Economy • trade • Workers • Indentured servants • Self-sufficient • traders • Characteristics • To attract settlers promised religious freedom • Settled 1610s • Founder • Lord Berkeley • Dutch settlers • Purpose • Part of New Netherlands • Type • Proprietary • proprietary colony in 1664 • Royal colony in 1702

  15. Pennsylvania • Government • King appointed Governor • Economy • Some small-scale industry • agriculture • Trade centers • Vibrant merchant class • *not compatible with mercantilism • Workers • Indentured servants • Families • Few to NO slaves • Characteristics • Haven for Quakers (Society of Friends) • Committed to non-violence and social justice • Good relations with natives • Philadelphia “city of brotherly love” • Cultural center • 1682 • Founder • William Penn • Purpose • “Holy Experiment” • Quakers • Type • Proprietary • NEVER a Royal Colony

  16. Georgia • Government • Royal appt. governor • Economy • Eventually plantations • Workers • Indentured workers • Slaves (eventually) • Characteristics • Felons • Oglethorpe had strict rules like no alcohol • Allowed only to be a buffer state and free over-crowded prisons • 1732 • Founder • James Oglethorpe • Purpose • Help people avoid English debtor’s prisons • Haven for Protestants • Type • Royal Charter • Royal Colony in 1752