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Immigration to New France
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  1. Immigration to New France

  2. The Census of 1666 • The goal of the first censuswas to count the population in order to plan for the settlement, economcactivities and defence of the territory. • Jean Talon wasgiven the task of going « door to door in order to count the exact number of people. » • He recorded the name, age, marital status and occupation of eachperson in the colony.

  3. Censusresults What do you notice about the number of men and women? Whatdoesthat tell you about the immigration needs of the colony?

  4. Engagés • An engagé was a colonistwhoagreed to work for a period of threeyears for an employer in the colonywho, in return, paid for his return trip, supportedhim, and paidhim a salary. • To encourage growth in the colony, shipcaptainshad to transport a number of engagés proportional to the size of theirship.

  5. Filles du Roy • To increase the birth rate in the colony, the state encouraged the emigration of young French women. Thesewomenweremostlyorphansunder the age of 25. • Theyarrived in the colonybetween 1663 and 1673. • Young single men in the colonywereexpected to marrytheseyoungwomenwithin 15 daysfollowingtheirarrival, or risklosingtheirhunting, fishing and tradingrights.

  6. Officers of the Carignan-Salière regiment • The King encouragedmillitaryofficers to move to the colony by offeringthem seigneuries. • Theywere sent there to defend the colonyduringwarswith the Iroquois between 1665 and 1667.

  7. Encouragingbirths and marriages • Read document 52 on page 33 of yourtextbook. • Financial incentives for familieswith 10 living children. • Financial incentives for men who are married by 20 and womenwho are married by 16. • Fines for fatherswhosechildren are not married by thatage.

  8. Immigration • It isbelievedthatduring the French regime, 27 000 to 35 000 people, mainly single men, immigrated to the colony. • Only 250 familiesarrived in Quebec City. • Companies, the Church and the administration favoured the arrival of single men: transportation costswerelower and the men’s labour contributed to clearing and defending the land.

  9. 1681 census • Despite the arrival of 800 Filles du Roy, the 1681 censusshowedthat more than 90% of men between the age of 15 and 29 werestill single.

  10. The composition of Canadian immigration before 1760 3.5% 4% 2.5% 15% 45% 15% 16% Document 53, page 34.

  11. Immigration to the St. Lawrence Valleyunder the French régime 7% 15% 41% 37% Whatis one reason for the low population in the colony? Document 54, page 34.

  12. In your opinion, were the measurestaken by the King of France effective in increasing the population of the colony?

  13. Lowlevel of French and Catholic immigration • The immigrants who came to Canada were a smallnumbercompared to the more than 900 000 Europeans and Africanswhoarrived in the 13 Colonies (future United States). Estimated population 1740

  14. Factors for low immigration • Harshclimate • Iroquois wars • Fur tradeprovided a limitednumber of jobs • King put a stop to Protestants immigrating • Only 1/3 of the Carignan-Salieresregimentstayed in the colony