Immigration in France. BY: Nick Klein . Post World War ll. France received a large influx of immigrants during reconstruction following the Second World War The French Government was keen to incoming immigrants because there was a significant lack in labor
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Immigration in France BY: Nick Klein
Post World War ll • France received a large influx of immigrants during reconstruction following the Second World War • The French Government was keen to incoming immigrants because there was a significant lack in labor • Immigrants came from Europe, Africa, and some from Latin America - The ruins of St. Lo France following attacks during WWll
Vietnam War • Vietnam gained its independence from France in 1954 • Immigrant wave consisted of people loyal to French government or married to French colonists • A large wave of immigrants from South Vietnam came when the country was partitioned • Many decided to stay once the war worsened -Geneva conference (’54) granted Vietnam independence from France
Algerian War • Roughly 200,000 Algerian immigrants already resided in France before the Algerian War for independence broke out (1954) • Many of these immigrants were unwelcomed during the war and were targeted • Algerians were free to enter the country at the end of the war • Number of Immigrants from Algeria increased dramatically from 350,000 to 700,000 between 1962 to 1975 • Consisted of “harkis” (Algerians who supported France during the war) and “pieds-noir” (French citizens who moved to Algeria, but later returned). • Also received a large number of African immigrants from other foreign colonies (mainly students and workers)
Eastern Europe - France received a large number of Eastern European immigrants immediately after the collapse of the Berlin wall and communism in the early 90’s. The immigrants consisted mainly of people seeking work.
Present-day immigration flows • Today, most immigrants come from Africa, European countries in the EU, and other non-EU European countries • This is a result of post-colonization and years following the Cold War Maghreb = Arab or Berber
Immigration population • Immigrants and their direct descendants consisted of about 20% of the French population in 2008 • Of the total number of immigrants in 2008, almost 40% have claimed French citizenship • 6.7 million of the immigrant population consisted of direct descendants of immigrants (at least on foreign born parent) • 11% of the total population in France (2008) • Most immigrants reside in the Île-de-Franceregion in France • 40% of the immigrant population
-3rd generation immigrants, illegal immigrants, and ethnic minorities like Black people from the French overseas territories residing in metropolitan France (800,000), Roms (500,000) or people born in Maghreb with French citizenship at birth (about 4 million Maghrebi Jews, Harkis and Pied-Noir including their descendants live in France) are not taken into account Roms = scattered ethnicity with Indian origin (Gypsies)
Second generation immigrants • 18.1% of young people under the age of 18 were of foreign origin (at least one immigrant parent) • 13.5% consisted of non-European origin - In 2010, 27.3% of all newborns in France had at least one foreign born parent
Immigration in regions - Most of the second generation immigrants consist of Maghreb, Sub-Saharan African, Turkish, or South European
Ethnicity • Maghrebs account for the largest ethnic group in France • 3.5 million people of Maghrebi origin living in France in 2005 • 5.8% of total French population
Second generation Maghrebi - Paris and Seine-Saint-Denis located in Île-de-France
Naturalization in France • CIS = countries of the former Soviet Republics formed during the disbandment of the Soviet Union • Children born in France receive citizenship upon reaching the age of 18
Comparison to the EU • France has the 2nd largest immigrant population in the entire EU with a little more than 7,000,000 foreign-born citizens and about 5,000,000 of them from areas outside of the EU