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The development of communication without spatial boundaries. Carsten Griwodz [email protected] In use Broadcast television Distributed games SMS PayTV Web P2P file sharing Video-on-demand MMS Audio and video conferencing …. In labs 3D worlds Virtual reality Distributed classrooms

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The development of communication without spatial boundaries
The developmentofcommunication without spatial boundaries

Carsten Griwodz

[email protected]

Distributed interactive applications 10 years ago

In use

Broadcast television

Distributed games




P2P file sharing



Audio and video conferencing

In labs

3D worlds

Virtual reality

Distributed classrooms

Shopping malls

3D cameras

Augmented reality

P2P name resolution

Distributed interactive applications: 10 years ago

Prevalence of interactive applications in entertainment
Prevalence of interactive applications in entertainment

  • Market shift in entertainment

    • 10 years ago

      • Broadcast media with roughly 50% of all content live

        • Sport shows

        • News shows

        • Reality shows

        • Game shows

      • Stand-alone gaming

      • Bought and rented videos

    • Today

      • Broadcast media with nearly 99% of all content live

        • Game shows

        • Reality shows

        • Game and sport reports

        • Live reports

      • Interactive shows

      • Interaction fiction (personalized, live generation of 3D worlds)

      • Interaction games

Prevalence of interactive applications in entertainment1
Prevalence of interactive applications in entertainment

Interactive games

Mrd Euro





Prevalence of interactive applications in entertainment2
Prevalence of interactive applications in entertainment

  • Reasons

    • Content theft in passive on-demand applications requires protection measures

    • Adequate protection technology

      • Required for all digital recording devices to be always connected

      • Interfered with device usage

      • Was not accepted by users

  • Solutions

    • Lease content and make it available only when connections are available

    • Provide distributed interactive applications such as games

      • Provide unstructured, mostly meaningless content

      • Artistic part added through interaction with content providers

Resource issues in home entertainment
Resource issues in home entertainment

  • Home entertainment systems

  • Integration of many independent devices into a single experience

    • TV screen (non-interactive)

    • Projectors and HDTV widescreen (non-interactive)

    • Video walls (interactive)

    • Distributed devices with session migration (interactive)

  • Input devices for interactivity

    • Low end single base devices

      • Remote control, keyboard, mouse, joystick, gamepad, ..

    • High end multiple base devices

      • PDA, mobile phone, …

      • gesture trackers, voice control, …

    • Input to one application shared among several consumers

    • From multiple independent end systems

    • Personal distributed computing

  • High synchronization requirements

    • Synchronize audio streams from several devices





Distributed devices and computing
Distributed devices and computing

Number of cores in a single processor



ia32, ia64


Distributed devices and computing1
Distributed devices and computing

  • Session migration

    • Move running applications between end systems

    • E.g. from a mobile phone to a home entertainment system

  • Distribution of computation and view

    • High level description for audiovisual objects

    • Enables distributed rendering on several output devices

    • E.g. picture-in-picture of summarized news and measurements

  • Personal grid

    • Development environments create distributable applications transparently

    • Jobs migrate automatically to machines with appropriate services

Resource issues in home entertainment1
Resource issues in home entertainment

  • Most applications are interactive today

  • Interactive fiction requires very high bandwidth and very low latencies at the same time

  • Development steps

    • Latency requirements are addressed by program design

    • Latency requirements are addressed by architecture support

      • Bandwidth increase becomes possible

    • Mobility of devices improves

    • Team play within massive multiplayer games becomes popular

    • Mesh networks are used to increase scale

      • Required multi-homing, load balancing, multipath support

    • Mesh networks require charging and billing among end-users

    • QOS support



Latency issues
Latency issues

  • You can’t hide latency in some applications

    • Applications where prediction of the remote state will inevitably lead to wrong decisions

      • Remote operations

      • Mobile exploration, construction and rescue robots

      • Multiplayer games without physical models

      • Military command and control

      • Distributed production streets

    • Applications where the latency is so high that prediction can not be applied any more

      • Space exploration, construction and rescue

  • Result

    • New comeback of AI technology

      • Achieve independent decisions in many more cases

      • Based on general directions instead of direct control

    • New kind of critical operator jobs

      • Requires a high level of education: knowledge of processes and there interaction

      • Possibly working under high risk or in adverse conditions

    • QoS to push the limits

Mesh networks
Mesh networks

  • Make it affordable to use higher bandwidth

    • Enable resource sharing

    • Required to achieve data rates required for interactive fiction

    • Higher aggregate bandwidth

  • Remain always on

    • Resilient against failures of individual connections

  • Incentive to share resources is required

    • Billing developed

  • Limited sharing is necessary

    • Wireless multihop routing extended with QoS mechanisms

    • QoS mechanisms for uplink resource sharing introduced

    • QoS for downlink resource sharing introduced

Mesh networks1
Mesh networks

  • Mesh networking implies multiplexed connections through several Internet service providers at the same time

    • Multi-homing and multi-path support

  • Local network

    • Market of local resources

    • Share other local resources as well

  • Mesh networks are implemented on top of wired and wireless devices

    • Operated under private ownership, as public service or commercial service, or any mix of this

    • One mesh is an administrative domain

      • Defined by a contract for resource sharing and the tools required to implement the contract

    • Nodes can participate in several meshes

    • Nodes do not have to route traffic

Transparent multi homing and multi path

Two requirements for scalability in mesh networks


Addressable presence of the same transport connection of an application in several networks at the same time


Transmission of a single data stream to a single application using several networks concurrently

Required a new addressing abstraction

Alternative supported approaches

Anycast to multi-homed interfaces, and path choice at individual routers

Transport address layer translation to several network layer addresses to perform congestion control for the separate homes and paths

Connection-oriented network layer with end-to-end negotiation of several paths

Transparent multi-homing and multi-path

Commercial content hosting development
Commercial content hosting development

  • Centralized web hosting

    • Ease of use, load leveling

  • Content distribution in static overlay networks

    • Scalability

  • Hosting of applications

    • Applications become more interactive

    • Offload central servers, keep traffic local, aggregate and filter at the application level

    • Not quite active networks

Commercial content hosting development1
Commercial content hosting development

  • Proxies as a dynamic software solutions

    • Success of P2P generalized, exploit available end user resources, but need incentive model, which is here financial

    • Traffic can be kept local

      • Reduce load

      • Reduce latencies

    • Co-development with mesh network availability

  • Private business from private proxies

    • Small-scale revenue model that can grow and shrink dynamically

    • Resources can be traded among consumers

      • Power-nodes liker eBay power sellers

    • Goes hand-in-hand with QoS support in mesh networks

Pgfs personal global file system
PGFS: Personal global file system

  • Data appear to be stored in a single global file system

  • Accessible from all connected end devices

  • Independent of

    • Current location

    • Current end system

    • Administrative domain (home or business)

  • Fully transparent access to data

    • Personal data

    • Publicly available content (e.g. web pages, incl. dynamically created web page)

    • Content shared with other users

Pgfs personal global file system1
PGFS: Personal global file system

  • The personal global file system

    • Is virtual

    • Every user has one personal global namespace

    • Can span several actual local namespaces

    • Lookup service

      • Subscription to one of several global namespace management services

      • P2P systems using aggressive caching and replication

  • Dynamic growth through hosting

    • Locking to a physical location is possible

    • Contribution to the storage pool is possible

    • Reserved storage space is traded on-line

  • Very secure

Importance of conferencing
Importance of conferencing

  • 10 years ago

    • Hardly in use aside from two-party AV communication

    • Problems

      • Low video quality

      • High latency and jitter

      • No immersion

      • Cooperation mostly in a shared computer use paradigm

  • Now

    • Important because of high fuel prices

    • Available in public transport systems (including road trains, railcabs)

    • Features

      • 3D conferencing

      • Augmented reality conference settings

      • Gesture and voice recognition

      • Quality guarantees

Interactive distributed 3d design
Interactive distributed 3D design

  • 10 years ago

    • Go to IKEA with the measurements from your house

  • Now

    • Loan an ultrasound meter from IKEA

    • Set up it in your room

    • Design interactively with an online salesperson in a 3D presentation

    • Use gesture tracking to manipulate the room

  • Other applications

    • Distributed construction of houses, bridges, etc.

    • Design session is integrated with the architects' home system

      • E.g. perform stability automatically like spell-checking in a word processor 10 years ago

    • Owner can be included in the process

    • In general more interaction in production

Medical services
Medical services

  • Hierarchically organized

    • From local first aid station to rare specialized clinics

    • Reason is the cost of specialization

    • Local health station need support to handle difficult cases

  • Approach

    • Central remote treatment centers

    • Mobile operation theaters

  • Requirement

    • Top quality data network to every local health station

    • Extremely resilient networks

    • QoS support in networks

    • Availability of dynamic short-term QoS contracts

    • Simple reconfiguration


  • 10 years ago

    • Service planning

    • Bandwidth-oriented

    • Generic SLAs among ISPs

  • Now

    • Latency-oriented

    • Local area QoS

      • Static distribution defined by mesh contracts

      • Policy-conforming distribution of resources

      • Resource brokerage

      • … all of the above

    • Long-distance QoS

      • Unified labeling and switching for low-latency connections

      • On-demand QoS offered by independent traffic aggregators (brokers)

Supervision cameras
Supervision cameras

  • Until 5 years ago

    • Massive growth in number of CCTV cameras

    • Decrease in police in the street

    • Increase in petty crime

    • Increase in private security service business

  • 4 years ago

    • Improvement in image detection and tracking improves solution rate for petty crime to nearly 100%

    • Increasing frequency of misuses makes people suspicious

  • 3 years ago

    • All CCTV cameras are made publicly accessible

    • Development of 3D scene creation from multiple camera angles

    • Object recognition allows automatic tracking of people

    • Coordinated actions through cities by private security companies based on Jedermannsrecht

    • Decrease in petty crime

Supervision cameras1
Supervision cameras

  • Leads to business

    • Object tracking across several cameras

      • Suffers from inaccurate timing and different latencies and picture quality

      • Can be overcome by exact timecodes

      • Offered as commercial add-on service

    • Commercial redistributors negotiate for additional services

      • Exact timecodes (using Galileo), object recognition, and 3D reconstruction make it possible to create 3D scenes from several cameras, thereby following everybody around

    • Allows people to track others

  • One service: Nanny-TV

    • People track their children around

    • Leads to persecution complex amongchildren

    • School uniforms become fashionable