Spatial development of Slovenia ROUND TABLE »ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE IN SOUTH KOREAAND SLOVENIA« University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic EngineeringSvečanadvorana (Festive Hall, 2nd Floor) Ljubljana, 19th June 2014
Structure of the presentation • Some facts of SI • National Spatial Development Policy • Energy • BetweendesiredandcurrentState • Challenges
Some basic characteristics Surface area: 20.273 km2 Border length: with Austria 318, with Italy 280, with Hungary 102 and with Croatia 670 km; in total 1370 km Coast-line: 46,6 km At the junction of geographical regions: Alpine, Pannonian, Mediterranean and Dinaric→ influence on climate, geology and spatial distribution of activities Inland waters: in total 26 600 km Medium height above sea level: 556,8 m Forest: more than half of the territory - 1.163.812 ha, 3rdplace in EU
SI settlement characteristics Settlementswith> 1000 inhabitantsandpopulation trend +/- Settlementsaccording to theirsizeandpopulation (1st January 2014) → ↑ Source: SORS
Spatial Development Policyof Sl • 1980 - Societal planning system: spatial/territorial, social and economic part • After 1990: disintegration of the societal planning system – spatial plansremains, without social and economic part • Until 2004: Long- andmid-term NationalSpatial Plan, preparedon the basis of legislation from 1984 with some accommodations • In 2004: adoptionoftheSpatialDevelopmentStrategyofSlovenia in the • Integrationofallrelevantsectorsandfields (environment, culturalheritage, transport, energy, agriculture, forestry, tourism, riskmanagement, defence) • Participativeapproach: studiesofpotentialdevelopmentopportunitiesbyinvolvedsectors, expertspatialplanningstudies, analysisofpotentialenvironmentalimpactsoftheproposedspatialdevelopmentconceptetc. • Thehighestagreement: adoption in theParliament • In 2013: Does SI spatialdevelopment go as foreseen - „planned“?
SI Spatial Development Strategy • Builds on three interconnected spatial development systems: • Settlement • Infrastructure • Landscape • Three main sets of objectives: • Rational end efficient spatial development through polycentric urban development • Appropriate connectivity and accessibility – within SI and to EU infrastructure networks • Landscape identity and environmental sustainability • Concept with priorities: • Integration of SI into the EU space – infrastructure, ports, cities, remoteborderareas • Polycentric urban system and regional spatial development – systemofcentersofnationalandregionalsignificancebackedwithinfrastructuresystems; integrateddevelopmentoffunctional urban areas • Improvement and maintanance of attractivness of cities and ruralareas • DetailedGuidelinesforSpatialdevelopment at regionalandlocallevels • Implementationmeasures
SI Spatial Development Strategy • Energysector is importantfornationaleconomyandbalancedterritorialdevelopment • Energysystemsshallensurehigh-quality, economical and adequate energy supply in the required form in all regions, towns and other settlements. • SDSS‘s guidelines:in energygenerating,transforming, transmitting, distributing and using energy – whichcauses adverse and long-term environmental and spatial impacts – account shall be taken intoaccountof the principles of sustainable spatial development and findings about limited resources, as well as about the possibilities for using all actual potentials in efficient energy use.
EnergyConsumption in SI • 2012: finalenergyconsumption= 4,96 Mtoe (208 PJ) → 2,41 toe / cap. • 2012: electricityconsumption= 6160 kWhpercapita • Since 1992: country's energydemandincreasedbyanaverageof2% peryear → total growth of 40% until 2009 • Themaincontributor = transportationsector→increased by 110% in the same period • Demand / Consumption in 2012 is coveredby: • Petroleumproducts → 49 % • Electricity→22 % • RES & waste→12 % • Naturalgas→11 %, • Heat→4 % • soildfuels→1 % • Diagram: • Total final consumption (TFC) • in Slovenia, 2000-2012
RES productionandplans in SI • RES reliesmainly on biomass (61%) andhydropower (34%) • 2012 - totalproductionof RES: 1.0 Mtoe (11,5 TWh) →28 % of indigenous energy production and 20 % of final energy consumption • 33 % oftheelectricityconsumed in 2012 →from RES • Hydropowerstill accounts for around 90% of the total electricity generated from renewable energy sources, followed by biomass with 6 % and solar photovoltaic with 4 %. • 2012 - totalelectricityproduction: hydropowergenerates 27 % • Prioritizationofthedevelopmentofrenewableenergies: biomass, geothermalandheatfromwaste • Hydropowercapacitiesshallbeenlargedextensively: sevennewplants are planned to bebuiltbytheyear 2018 andadditionallyeightnewplantsby 2030. Further, there are four major windfarmsexpected to becommissionedby 2015.
New EnergyStrategy In preparation: New EnergyStrategywillfocus on renewableenergysources, energyefficiencyand GHG emissionswiththeobjectiveofmeetingtheEuropeanclimate & energytargetsfor 2020 and 2030 on a nationallevelwith a furtherlook to 2050.
Betweendesiredandcurrentstate Policyaim: Polycentric urban system (2004) – balancedterritorialdevelopment Accessibilityby car to regionalcenters Increaseoftheinhabitantsaroundbiggercitiesandalongthehighwaycross Dailymigrationpatterns
Problem: competitiveness in space • Between: • - Agriculture • andsettlement • - Municipalities • Overgrowingofagricultureland (forestation) • Nature/biodiversityconservationandeconomicdevelopment (settlements in Nature 2000 areas: red =increasing, blue = decreasing)
Globalchallenges - localimpacts • Demographicchanges – ageing, depopulation in remoteareas – abandonmentoflanduseanddecreaseof SGI • Climatechange – changingconditionsforspatialdevelopmentanddiffrentsectors (agriculture) butalsohealth (increaseofspecificdiseases), floads • Globalcompetitivnessandenvironmentalsustainability? • Biodiversity: opportunity or obstacle? Lackofknow-how, lackofwillingness / confidenceoflocalpeople? • Energysupply – spatialconflictsforintroducing more RES instalations; nuclearpowerremains open forthe moment - potentialpublicobjections to nuclearenergyproduction; • Governance: inclusionofspatialandenvironmentalaspects in nationaldevelomentpolicyand in policies on otherlevels (regionaldevelopment, urban policy, localdevelopment)
Addressingchallengesthrough SDSS • Foreseenrevisionofthe SDSS • Theaim: betweenlong term spatialvisionandshort- to mid-term implementationframework(action plan /program?) • Integrationofdifferentsectoralfields→ synergies in the territory • Includequantifiedobjectivesandmonitoringtheimplementation(realisationoftargets) • Build on functionalrelations in theterritory→ functional (urban) areas • Promoteterritorialgovernance
firstname.lastname@example.org Thankyou MinistryofInfrastructureandSpatialPlanning SpatialPlanningDirectorate Note: Mapswithoutindicationofthesource are takenfromtheAnalysisofthestate, developmenttrendsandguidelinesforstrategicspatialdevelomentofSlovenia, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, 2011