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Learning, Motivation and Performance. Chapter #3. Learning Outcomes. By the conclusion of this discussion you should: More thoroughly understand what motivates people to learn and to perform. Be able to put together a 5 min training on a motivational theory

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learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes
  • By the conclusion of this discussion you should:
    • More thoroughly understand what motivates people to learn and to perform.
    • Be able to put together a 5 min training on a motivational theory
    • Understand learning, how it progress’s, why it is resisted, and how differently people learn.
factors underlying individual performance
Factors Underlying Individual Performance













  • Motivation: The direction, persistence and amount of effort expended by someone in order to achieve a desired outcome.
    • Cognitive (mental structure: thinking, memory)
    • Can’t be directly observed
    • Defined in terms of effects on behavior
  • Two groups of theories to explain motivation:
    • Need
    • Process
group break out instructions
Group Break-out Instructions
  • Assumptions: Everyone has read the chapter. Each of you are protégés of the theorists.
  • Discuss in depth the theory your group has been assigned. Come to a common understanding on the content.
  • Identify:
    • Underlying principles of theory
    • Implications for trainers and the training process
  • Outcome: Assign 2 members to give a five minute presentation to the class. Be creative in your training. Your objective is for your audience to understand the theory and its importance in the training arena. I.e. demonstrate how it works, give real life examples, experiment with your audience.
erg theory
ERG Theory
  • Developed by Clayton Alderfer 1969
    • Based on the work of A. Maslow
    • Existence Needs – needs people have to sustain life (food, shelter, ,etc.)
    • Relatedness Needs – needs people have to belong and feel accepted by others.
    • Growth Needs – needs people have to accomplish goals and stretch their limits.
reinforcement theory







Reinforcement Theory
  • Developed by E. L. Thorndike and modified by B. F. Skinner (operant conditioning)
    • Law of effect – behavior followed by satisfying experiences will be repeated and behavior followed by dissatisfying experiences will be avoided.
    • Operant Conditioning:
reinforcement theory8
Reinforcement Theory
  • Four Consequences:
    • Positive Reinforcement – when a person’s behavior results in something desirable
    • Negative Reinforcement – when a person’s behavior results in removal of something that is disliked or frustrating.
    • Whether the reinforcement is positive or negative, it increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.
reinforcement theory9
Reinforcement Theory
  • Four Consequences
    • Punishment- when something undesirable happens to you and it decreases the likelihood that your behavior will be repeated
      • Punishment reduces the future likelihood of a behavior
    • Extinction – a form of punishment that results from losing something that was desirable
expectancy theory
Expectancy Theory
  • Developed by Victor Vroom (1964)
  • Tries to describe the cognitive processes involved in deciding how to satisfy needs.
  • Mathematical in nature
  • Takes into account the fact that people are motivated by different things.
expectancy theory of motivation
Expectancy Theory of Motivation


















Value of Outcome

Does trainee have ability

to learn?

Does the trainee believe

that training outcomes

promised will be


Are outcomes promised

valued by the trainee?

Does trainee believe

they can learn?

self efficacy
  • Feelings about one’s own competency
  • Associated with a belief that one can and will perform successfully.
    • Low: concerns about failure
  • High self-efficacy has been linked to better performance.
  • Plays a role in expectancy theory
  • Training can improve self-efficacy
understanding learning
Understanding Learning
  • Learning: relatively permanent change in cognition, resulting from experience and directly influencing behavior.
    • Short-lived changes in cognition are not included
    • Not dependent on behavior change
    • Tied to memory (changing in neural functioning)
gagne s learning types
Gagne’s Learning Types
  • Signal Learning - generalized response (typically non-voluntary) to a signal in the environment
    • Classical conditioning – Pavlov
    • i.e. salivation
  • Stimulus-response – single response to a single stimulus as a result of consequence to response
    • Operant conditioning/reinforcement theory
    • i.e. Touch a hot stove – learn not to touch the stove
gagne s learning types15
Gagne’s Learning Types
  • Shaping – learning by linking appropriate behaviors together and learning the reinforcing consequences that are linked to the behavior set.
    • Reinforcing movement in the right direction
  • Verbal association – linking a verbal response to an object or event in the environment. Stimulus becomes language.
    • Vocabulary
    • Training must start at the verbal association level
gagne s learning types16
Gagne’s Learning Types
  • Multiple discrimination – learning to identify key aspects of differing situations and then apply the appropriate responses.
  • Concept learning – learning to make a common response to situations that have common characteristics but are otherwise different.
    • generalization
gagne s learning types17
Gagne’s Learning Types
  • Principle learning – learning to combined multiple concepts together and apply knowledge for use in specific situations.
    • Required for procedural and strategic knowledge
  • Problem solving – learning that combines more than one principle to create a new response.
    • Results in a higher-order principle.
social learning theory
Social Learning Theory
  • Developed by A. Bandura
  • Basis: learning can occur simply by observation of what is going on around you.
    • Observing behavior and consequence
    • Motivation – want/desire consequence
    • Attention – visually appealing/different
    • Retention – store & remember
  • Reproduce behavior
resistance to learning
Resistance to Learning
  • Fear of unknown
  • Fear of incompetence
  • Fear of losing rewards
  • Fear of lost influence
  • Lost investments
adult learning principles
Adult Learning Principles
  • Adults learn differently
  • Adult learner:
    • Practicality
    • Value & Utility
    • Life-, Task, or Problem-centered
    • Ready to Learn
    • Control over Learning
    • Share Experiences
    • Involvement in Process
  • Training professionals must understand the basics of performance and motivation in order to effectively design and deliver training programs.
  • Learning is individual and each learner must be assessed individually in order for learning to occur.