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MOTIVATION AND LEARNING. VIEWS OF MOTIVATION. Behaviourist Expectancy theories Needs theories Self-perception and self-worth theories Learned helplessness Social theories Significant learning. BEHAVIOURISM. A particular stimulus provokes a particular response.

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motivation and learning

MOTIVATION AND LEARNING

Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004

views of motivation
VIEWS OF MOTIVATION
  • Behaviourist
  • Expectancy theories
  • Needs theories
  • Self-perception and self-worth theories
  • Learned helplessness
  • Social theories
  • Significant learning

Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004

behaviourism
BEHAVIOURISM
  • A particular stimulus provokes a particular response.
  • Behaviour that is positively reinforced is learned.
  • Repetition and rote lead to learning.
  • Learning is largely extrinsic.
  • Negative reinforcement leads to forgetting.
  • Lack of repetition leads to extinction.
  • Learning is conditioned behaviour.
  • Learning is evidenced in observable behaviour.
  • Learners can be programmed; it is robotic.

Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004

expectancy theories
EXPECTANCY THEORIES
  • Motivation for learning (M) is a function of the expectancies and likelihood of success by the learner (E) and the value that the learner attributes to the goals and outcomes of the learning (V).
  • M = f (E,V).
  • The amount of effort people expend on an activity is a function of the degree of expectancy that they have that a particular activity will lead to better performance, rewards and meeting their own desired objectives.

Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004

needs theories
NEEDS THEORIES
  • Learning is a humanistic activity, engaging all aspects of the person’s make-up.
  • Learners have needs which must be met in a hierarchy.
  • Lower order needs must be satisfied before higher order needs can be met.
  • Self-esteem and self-actualisation are high in the hierarchy.
  • Physical, security and emotional needs precede cognitive needs.

Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004

slide6

The Maslow Hierachy of Needs

Under-

standing and

knowledge

Self-actualisation

Self-esteem

Love and belonging

Safety

Physiological

Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004

self perception and self worth
SELF-PERCEPTION AND SELF-WORTH
  • Learning is effective if self-esteem and self-worth are high and deserved.
  • Low self-esteem and self-worth are major barriers to effective motivation and learning.
  • Self-esteem and self-worth are linked to the degree control that learners have over their learning.
  • Learners must experience success and a sense of achievement.
  • Learners must be given rich and positive feedback; it is a sign of respect for the learners.

Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004

learned helplessness
LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
  • Learned helplessness is related to loss of control over one’s learning.
  • Learned helplessness occurs when we feel there is no response to a situation we can make to change the course of events, even if we exert maximum effort.
  • Learned helplessness is a consequence of taught dependency, obedience, passive learning, compliance and docility, didactic and irrelevant teaching.
  • Over-emphasis on rewards and punishments (behaviourism) can lead to learned helplessness.
  • Learned helplessness is a motivational problem.
  • Teachers cause learned helplessness.
  • Learned helplessness results from being trained to be locked into a system.

Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004

symptoms of helplessness
SYMPTOMS OF HELPLESSNESS
  • Lowered initiation of voluntary responses.
  • Negative cognitive set (self-reproach and guilt and tendency to underestimate their effectiveness).
  • Passivity.
  • Lack of self-confidence and feeling hopeless.
  • Poor problem solving.
  • Wandering attention.
  • Poor social skills.
  • Learned helpless children are extrinsically motivated and not so much intrinsically motivated because of their failures.
  • A child suffering from learned helplessness eventually gives up.
  • You only get noticed or attention if you fail.

Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004

social theories
SOCIAL THEORIES
  • The social learning environment is highly significant.
  • Collaborative learning is highly effective.
  • Higher order cognition is motivating, and is socially learned and transmitted.
  • Cognitive, behavioural and environmental factors constantly interact to promote motivation and learning.
  • Students model their learning on their observation of other learners.
  • Effective learning is interactive.
  • Peer group behaviour affects learning significantly.

Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004

significant learning
SIGNIFICANT LEARNING
  • Motivation requires personal involvement, interest and commitment.
  • Learning is self-initiated.
  • Learning makes a difference to the ‘whole person’.
  • The learner is involved in the evaluation of learning.
  • Effective teachers must inquire about the significance of the learning for the learner.
  • The teacher, as a ‘significant other’, must be a model of ongoing and effective learning.
  • Learners must be made to feel valued.

Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004

key implications
KEY IMPLICATIONS
  • Motivation is a central feature of effective teaching and learning.
  • Motivation is neglected in Macau schools and needs to be addressed a lot more.
  • Make motivation intrinsic; extrinsic motivation risks killing longer-term and deeper, intrinsic motivation.
  • Motivation increases when significant, real-world, social and collaborative learning takes place.
  • Reduce behaviourism, increase self-worth, self-esteem and collaborative learning.
  • Increase student autonomy.
  • Break learned helplessness.

Copyright Keith Morrison, 2004