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SHRP2 Project R04 Bridge Designs for ABC. Bala Sivakumar HNTB Corp. FHWA P2P Exchange Aug. 2012 Boston. Phase I – Define ABC Challenges Phase II – Identify & Refine the Best ABC Technologies Phases III & IV – Standardize & Deploy ABC Phase V – Beta testing of ABC Toolkit by VAOT.

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shrp2 project r04 bridge designs for abc

SHRP2 Project R04Bridge Designs for ABC

Bala Sivakumar

HNTB Corp.

FHWA P2P Exchange

Aug. 2012 Boston


Phase I – Define ABC Challenges

Phase II – Identify & Refine the Best ABC Technologies

Phases III & IV – Standardize & Deploy ABC

Phase V – Beta testing of ABC Toolkit by VAOT

SHRP2 Project R04


To develop standardized approaches to designing, constructing, and reusing complete bridge systems that address rapid renewal needs


SHRP2 Project R04


2008 -- 2013

HNTB (Prime)

Iowa State University

Structural Engineering Assoc.

Genesis Structures

Dr Monica Starnes, Senior Program Officer SHRP2



Phase IV (2011-2013)

SHRP2 R04 -- Phases I, II, III

(2008 – 2011)

shrp2 r04 abc toolkit
SHRP2 R04 ABC Toolkit











Expected Outcome: The designer, guided by the standard design concepts, details and the set of ABC design calculations will be better prepared to complete an ABC design for a routine bridge replacement project.

abc standard design concepts
ABC Standard Design Concepts


Focus on conventional bridges

Complete bridges using prefabricated elements

Contractor could self-perform a lot of the work

Fabricate on site or in a plant and erect using conventional cranes

Fast assembly in the field in 1 to 2 weeks (Tier 3 or less)

Durable connections / durable bridges

span ranges for superstructures
Span Ranges for Superstructures
  • Simple / continuous spans from 40 ft to 130 ft.
  • Simple for DL ; Continuous for LL ; No Open Joints
  • Plans are grouped in the following span ranges:
    • 40 ft to 70 ft
    • 70 ft to 100 ft
    • 100 ft to 130 ft.
  • Spans to 130 ftcan usually be transported and erected in one piece at many sites.
  • Weight < 200 Kips for erection using conventional cranes commonly used by contractors
prefabricated decked beam elements
Prefabricated Decked Beam Elements

2 Lane bridge with shoulders shown – customize width for site

Deck Bulb Tees

Double Tees

Modular Decked Beams

modular decked beams
Modular Decked Beams
  • Barrier can be precast
  • Barrier load on exterior module
prestressed decked girders
Prestressed Decked Girders

Decked Bulb Tee

Span lengths from 40 ft to 130 ft

UT, WA, ID among states with DBT standards

Based on the PCI NEXT beam

Spans to 90 ft

Low depth alternative

Adjacent Double Tee

prefabricated substructure elements
Prefabricated Substructure Elements


  • Semi Integral Abutments
  • Integral Abutments
  • Inline or U type Wingwalls
  • Supported on Piles and Spread Footings


  • Precast Conventional Pier
  • Precast Straddle Bent
  • Drilled Shaft and Spread Footing Options
integral and semi integral bridges for rapid renewal
Integral and Semi-Integral Bridges for Rapid Renewal

Well suited for ABC

They allow the joints to be moved beyond the bridge

Close tolerances required when utilizing expansion bearings and joints are eliminated

The backwallis precast with the deck.

Fast erection in 1 to 2 days, economical

semi integral abutment suspended backwall
Semi-Integral AbutmentSuspended Backwall
  • H piles or spread footings
  • Fill pile pockets with SCC
  • Easy fit-up in the field
precast piers
Precast Piers
  • Non-prestressed so contractor can self-perform precasting
  • Fast erection using grouted splice couplers

Conventional Pier

  • Deep foundation may be outside existing footprint

Straddle Bent

abc connections
ABC Connections

Connections affect field assembly time.

Goal is rapid field assembly and long-term durability of joints

Also, flexural continuity between modules to emulate CIP construction

Connections affect seismic performance

REFERENCE: FHWA Connections Manual

connections for abc
Connections for ABC
  • Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) longitudinal & transverse joints between superstructure modules
  • Grouted splice couplers in piers replace the typical lap splice
  • Self Consolidating Concrete (SCC) pile connections and abutment to wingwall connections


  • Grouted cap pockets / grouted ducts for substructure connections (seismic)
  • Other rapid set concrete options may be used
uhpc joints in bridge deck
UHPC Joints in Bridge Deck
  • Allows rapid construction. No post tensioning required
  • UHPC joints are typically 6 in wide. Good durability
  • Can be reinforced with hairpin bars or straight bars

(Longitudinal Joint.

Longitudinal steel not shown)


Erection Concepts for Prefabricated Elements

Erection Concept Drawings

Erection using conventional cranes.

Erection using ABC construction technologies adapted from long span construction

erection concepts for bridge replacement using cranes
Erection Concepts for Bridge Replacement Using Cranes

Short Single Span over Stream Cranes selected for 90 Kip pick

Longer Span over Roadway

Weight up to 200 kips

erection with abc construction technologies
Erection with ABC Construction Technologies
  • Use ABC construction technologies where ground access for cranes below the bridge may be limited.
  • Conventional cranes with enough reach
  • ABC technologies that allow construction from above:
    • Above Deck Driven Carriers
    • Launched Temporary Bridge
    • Transverse Gantry Frames
    • Longitudinal Gantry Frames
above deck driven carriers
Above Deck Driven Carriers

Allows fast rate of erection

Rides on existing bridge, new bridge(check capacity to support)

Ideal for bridges with many spans. long viaducts

launched temporary bridge
Launched Temporary Bridge
  • Sites with limited ground access or long spans
  • Launched across or lifted over a span to act as a “temporary bridge”
  • Used to deliver the heavier modules without inducing large erection stresses.
  • Temp bridge can also support transverse gantry frames
gantry frames
Gantry Frames

Transverse Gantry Frame

Longitudinal Gantry Frame


ABC Design Specifications for LRFD

The LRFD Design Specifications do not explicitly deal with the unique aspects of large scale prefabrication

In some cases, the most extreme load case may occur during shipping and handling.

The work in SHRP2 R04 entailed the identification of any shortcomings in the current LRFD Bridge Design Specifications

Recommendations are provided for addressing these limitations.

abc sample design calculations
ABC Sample Design Calculations
  • Three ABC design examples for prefabricated systems in the toolkit:
    • Modular Decked Beams
    • Decked Precast Prestressed Girder
    • Precast Pier
  • Design Criteria:
    • AASHTO LRFD (5th Edition)
    • Supplemental ABC criteria

The design examples provide guidance on the overall structural design of bridge components for ABC

lrfd for abc design
LRFD for ABC Design

The design of most ABC elements and systems follows traditional LRFD design specifications.

Design the ABC elements and the completed structure using all applicable LRFD Limit States

Additional requirements apply for ABC connections, lifting and moving of prefabricated elements and modules.

decked steel girder design for abc
Decked Steel Girder Design for ABC
  • Three Stages for Design

Prefabrication Stage (many support options)

    • Load Case 1 = Dead load on module steel section only
    • Load Case 2 = Dead load on module composite section

Erection Stage (many lift options)

    • Load Case 3 = Modules are lifted into place

Final Stage

    • Load Case 4 = Modules are assembled and made continuous
          • DL
          • FWS
          • LL + IM
          • Utilities

ABC Construction Specifications

  • Recommended Special Requirements for ABC
  • Focus heavily on means and methods requirements for rapid construction.

Proposed Section in LRFD Construction Specifications







XX.7 Handling, Storing, and Transportation

XX.8 Geometry Control

XX.9 Connections



First Demonstration Project Demonstrate Use of ABC Concepts Developed in SHRP2 R04Keg Creek Bridge, Iowa
  • Total prefabricated bridge
  • ABC design concepts & details developed in SHRP2 R04 Project were used with minimal customization for the site
  • 14 day ABC period
  • Opened Nov 1, 2011
shrp2 r04 abc demonstration project 2 lateral slide nysdot
SHRP2 R04 ABC Demonstration Project #2Lateral Slide (NYSDOT)

2012/ 2013 Construction

Overnight replacement

I-84 EB & WB Bridges

over Dingle Ridge Road


New generation PBES for ABC are economical to construct and designed for durability

SHRP2 R04 ABC Toolkit and training materials will be available to provide guidance to those new to ABC and the use of PBES

SHRP2 R04 demonstration projects showcase the use of the Toolkit

SHRP2 R04 ABC Toolkit to be available soon

The time for ABC is now