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The Heart. 18. Heart Anatomy. Approximately the size of your fist Location Superior surface of diaphragm Left of the midline Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to the sternum. Heart Anatomy. Figure 18.1. Coverings of the Heart: Anatomy.

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The Heart


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    1. The Heart 18

    2. Heart Anatomy • Approximately the size of your fist • Location • Superior surface of diaphragm • Left of the midline • Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to the sternum

    3. Heart Anatomy Figure 18.1

    4. Coverings of the Heart: Anatomy • Pericardium – a double-walled sac around the heart composed of: • A superficial fibrous pericardium • A deep two-layer serous pericardium • The parietal layer lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium • The visceral layer or epicardium lines the surface of the heart • They are separated by the fluid-filled pericardial cavity

    5. Coverings of the Heart: Physiology The pericardium: • Protects and anchors the heart • Prevents overfilling of the heart with blood • Allows for the heart to work in a relatively friction-free environment

    6. Pericardial Layers of the Heart Figure 18.2

    7. Heart Wall • Epicardium– visceral layer of the serous pericardium • Myocardium – cardiac muscle layer forming the bulk of the heart • Endocardium – endothelial layer of the inner myocardial surface

    8. External Heart: Major Vessels of the Heart (Anterior View) Vessels returning blood to the heart include: • Superior and inferior venae cavae • Right and left pulmonary veins Vessels conveying blood away from the heart include: • Pulmonary trunk, which splits into right and left pulmonary arteries • Ascending aorta (three branches) – brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and subclavian arteries

    9. External Heart: Anterior View Figure 18.4b

    10. External Heart: Posterior View Figure 18.4d

    11. Gross Anatomy of Heart: Frontal Section Figure 18.4e

    12. Atria of the Heart • Atria are the receiving chambers of the heart • Each atrium has a protruding auricle • Pectinate muscles mark atrial walls • Blood enters right atria from superior and inferior venae cavae and coronary sinus • Blood enters left atria from pulmonary veins

    13. Ventricles of the Heart • Ventricles are the discharging chambers of the heart • Papillary muscles and trabeculae carneae muscles mark ventricular walls • Right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk • Left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta

    14. Pathway of Blood Through the Heart and Lungs Right atrium  tricuspid valve  right ventricle  pulmonary semilunar valve  pulmonary arteries  lungs  pulmonary veins  left atrium  bicuspid valve  left ventricle  aortic semilunar valve  aorta  systemic circulation

    15. Pathway of Blood Through the Heart and Lungs Figure 18.5

    16. Heart Valves • Heart valves ensure unidirectional blood flow through the heart • Atrioventricular (AV) valves lie between the atria and the ventricles • AV valves prevent backflow into the atria when ventricles contract • Chordae tendineae anchor AV valves to papillary muscles

    17. Heart Valves • Aortic semilunar valve lies between the left ventricle and the aorta • Pulmonary semilunar valve lies between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk • Semilunar valves prevent backflow of blood into the ventricles

    18. Heart Valves Figure 18.8a, b

    19. Heart Valves Figure 18.8c, d

    20. Atrioventricular Valve Function Figure 18.9

    21. Semilunar Valve Function Figure 18.10