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United Arab Emirates University College of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Graduation Project II Second Semester 2007/2008. Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior. Advisor: Dr. Ahmed Bushlaibi. Group members: Khamis Ahmed Khamis 199900588

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United Arab Emirates UniversityCollege of EngineeringDepartment of Civil and Environmental EngineeringGraduation Project IISecond Semester 2007/2008

Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Advisor: Dr. Ahmed Bushlaibi

Group members:

Khamis Ahmed Khamis 199900588

Khalid HazaáMansour 200235841

Nasser Abdullah Alnaqbi 200212673

KhaledMoussalli200337587

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

contents
contents
  • Introduction.
  • The split cylinder test.
  • The permeability test.
  • The bending test.
  • The flexural test.
  • Conclusion.

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

introduction
Introduction
  • Using silica fume as an enhancer for the concrete beams, slabs, columns and any other concrete structure.
  • Concrete is very good material in compression however it is very week in tension so that is way we use reinforcement in it.

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

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Why Silica Fume ?

Cement grains (left), silica fume particles (right) at the same magnification.

The ACI 234R-96 report estimates that for a 15 percent silica fume replacement of cement, there are approximately 2,000,000 particles of silica fume for each grain of portland cement

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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Why Silica Fume ?

  • Change microstructure of the concrete
    • Physical aspect of silica fume :
        • Fills in the spaces between cement grains
    • Chemical contribution :
        • Cement releases calcium hydroxide.
        • Silica has very high silicon dioxide.
        • Calcium hydroxide will react with silicon dioxide to form calcium silicate hydrate.

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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introduction6
Introduction
  • Concrete solidifies and hardens after mixing and placement due to a chemical process known as hydration. The water reacts with cement which bonds the other components together eventually creating a stone-like material.
  • Reinforcement is a good indication for failure because it gives us a warning.

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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introduction7
Introduction
  • In GPI the concrete compression test was done.
    • Was that enough ??!
  • Four more test were done.
    • The split cylinder test.
    • The permeability test.
    • The bending test.
    • The flexural test.

NO

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

slide8

The split cylinder test

  • The permeability test.
  • The bending test.
  • The flexural test.

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

split cylinder test

Split Cylinder Test

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

split cylinder test10
Split cylinder test

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

  • This test, often referred to as the split-cylinder test, indirectly measures the tensile strength of concrete by compressing a cylinder through a line load applied along its length.
the testing machine
The testing machine

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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  • This test can be completed in a standard concrete compression testing machine, with only one special requirement the hinged bearing that loads the specimen.
the experiment
The Experiment

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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results
Results

The results above are in MPa

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

results14
Results

The results above are in MPa

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

results15
Results

The results above are in MPa

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

results16
Results

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

slide17

The split cylinder test.

  • The permeability test.
  • The bending test.
  • The flexural test.

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

permeability
Permeability
  • Permeability describes the ease by which any species (i.e. liquid or gas) can pass through concrete.
  • Objective :

Effect of silica fume in permeability of concrete on different percentage (0%,7.5%,10%,12.5%)

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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permeability19

Inflow

Concrete

Specimen

Flow path

Water permeating

through concrete

Outflow

Permeability
  • Most popular fluid is water
  • Most popular gas is O2 & CO2

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

permeability test
Permeability test

Shape: Cylinder

v=πr2h

R=15cm=0.15m

r=7.5cm=0.075m

h=2cm=0.02m

V =(π )*(0.075)2*(0.02)

=0.00035m3

V for 16 cylinder = (16)*(0.00035) =0.0056m3

R=15cm

h=2cm

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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calculation
Calculation
  • Water content for 16 cylinder=1.12Kg/m3
  • Cement content for 16 cylinder=3.3936kg

Coarse Aggregate:

For 16 cylinder = 5.1072 Kg

Fine Aggregate:

For 16 cylinder = 3.3432 Kg

Super plasticizer:

Sp=1.5 to 2 % of the total cement.

SP= 1.65% * 3.3936 = 53 ml

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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experiment
Experiment

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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curing
Curing
  • Water
  • 25 days
  • Oven
  • 3days

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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transportation
Transportation

To protect sample against air moisture

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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air permeability device
Air permeability device

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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Line diagram for the oxygen permeability apparatus

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

the permeability cell
The Permeability Cell

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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permeability28

Permeability Coefficient

(m/sec)

Pressure head gradient

Driving Force

Pressure head (m)

Volume Flow Rate

(m3/sec)

Flow Path

i.e. specimen thickness (m)

Cross Section

(m2/sec)

Permeability

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0%

7.5%

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10%

12.5%

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The silica fume will effect on the permeability as shown in the chart, when the quantity of silica fume increase the permeability will decrease.

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The split cylinder test.

  • The permeability test.
  • The bending test.
  • The flexural test.

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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beam design
Beam Design

Design of RC Section Requires Determination of:

  • Concrete Dimensions
      • Beam width b
      • Depth of steel reinforcement d
      • Section height h = d + cover-to-center of steel
  • Area of steel reinforcement As
  • Ensure safety requirements (As) min ≤ As ≤ (As) max

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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beam design34
Beam Design
  • Step 1: Assume Concrete Dimensions (Beam width & Section height) and Section Length
  • Beam width b = 100 mm
  • Section height h = 250 mm
  • Section Length L = 1.8 m

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

beam design35
Beam Design

Step 2: Estimate Beam Height According to ACI Deflection Requirements

hmin = L/16 = 1800 / 16 = 113 mm

hb = 250 mm > 113 mm

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

beam design36
Beam Design

Step 3: Assume bar size No. 10

For bar size No. 10, db = 9.5 mm

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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beam design37
Beam Design

Step 4: Calculate depth of steel reinforcement (d)

Cover = concrete cover to steel center

cc = clear concrete cover (20 mm for beams)

ds = diameter of stirrups (bar size # 10)

db = diameter of steel bar (bar size # 10)

Hence, Cover = cc + ds + db/2 = 20 + 9.5 + 9.5/2 = 34 mm

d = h - cover = 250 - 34 = 216 mm

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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beam design38
Beam Design

Step 5: Assume grade of a steel reinforcing bar & area of steel reinforcement As

Grade 420 (i.e. fy = 420 MPa) is the most commonly used steel

Use 2 bars No. 10 (As = 142 mm2)

Step 6: Compute steel ratio (ρ)

ρ = 142 / (100 * 216) = 0.00658

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

beam design39
Beam Design

Step 7: Ensure safety requirements (ρ) min ≤ ρ ≤ (ρ) max

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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beam design41
Beam Design

Step 7: Ensure safety requirements (ρ) min ≤ ρ ≤ (ρ) max

For fc' = 61.33 MPa 0.00466 ≤ ρ ≤ 0.03559

For fc' = 78.7 MPa 0.00528 ≤ ρ ≤ 0.04567

For fc' = 85.17 MPa 0.00549 ≤ ρ ≤ 0.04943

For fc' = 90 MPa 0.00565 ≤ ρ ≤ 0.05223

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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experiment42
Experiment

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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strain gauges
Strain Gauges

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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pouring the concrete
Pouring the Concrete

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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the smooth concrete surface
The Smooth Concrete Surface

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slide47

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slide49

The split cylinder test.

  • The permeability test.
  • The bending test.
  • The flexural test.

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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what is flexural strength
What is Flexural Strength ?
  • One measure of the tensile strength.
  • Measure of an unreinforced concrete.
  • Loading beams with tow concentrated load.

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beam details
Beam Details

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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flexural strength experimentally
Flexural Strength Experimentally

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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flexural strength theoretically
Flexural Strength Theoretically

fcu = 1.25 fc’

fc’ = 0.8 fcu

fr = 0.7 √ (0.8 fcu)

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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theoretical load
Theoretical Load

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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our trial mix data
Our Trial Mix Data

Water content for 7 beams = 200 x V

Cement content for 7 beams = 606 x V

Coarse Aggregate for 7 beams = 912 x V

Grade 10_14 = 30%

Grade 5_10 = 70%

Fine Aggregatefor 7 beams = 597 x V

Dune sand = 20%

Black sand = 80 %

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our trial mix data57
Our Trial Mix Data

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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experiment steps
Experiment steps

Preparing

Weighting

Mixing

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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experiment steps59
Experiment steps

Mixing

Prism Preparing

Concrete casting

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after 2 days
After 2 days

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concrete compression machine
Concrete Compression Machine
  • Consist of:
  • Two supporting rollers
  • Two load-applying rollers
  • Steel with circular cross-section
  • Diameter of 20 mm to 40 mm
  • At least 10 mm longer

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doing the experiment
Doing the Experiment

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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doing the experiment63
Doing the Experiment

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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doing the experiment64
Doing the Experiment

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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result
Result

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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result66
Result

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result67
Result

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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result68
Result

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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comparison
Comparison

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Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior

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conclusion
Conclusion
  • All the tests results were very encouraging.
  • Adding the silica fume to any concrete mixture will enhance the properties of the concrete far beyond its initial properties.
  • Increasing the amount of silica fume will result in enhancing the concrete properties.

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conclusion71
Conclusion
  • The silica fume is a very promising industry in the future.
  • For the next semester it is recommended for one of the GPI groups to investigate the influence of fly ash on concrete and compare it with our results.

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slide72

Thanks

for

listening

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