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From Aristotle to Newton: A Revolution in Science

From Aristotle to Newton: A Revolution in Science

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From Aristotle to Newton: A Revolution in Science

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  1. From Aristotle to Newton:A Revolution in Science

  2. Setting the Scene: Philosophy of the Time • The heavens represent perfection. • The heavens are immutable. • The circle is the perfect shape. • All heavenly motions must be circular. • The earth is at the center of the universe. • These ideas originated with Aristotle.

  3. “The astronomer must try his utmost to explain celestial motions by the simplest possible hypothesis; but if he fails to do so, he must choose whatever other hypotheses meet the case.” -Ptolemy of Alexandria (140 A.D.)

  4. Wanderers in the Heavens East South West • Planets don’t maintain a fixed position in the sky. • Their brightness varies depending on how far away they are from Earth at any time. • Planets appear to speed up and slow down in their motion. • Planets also appear at times to move backwards, which is known as retrograde motion (normal motion is to move west to east across celestial sphere).

  5. Ptolemy tried to crate a model that would account for retrograde motion.He placed the planets in orbits (deferents) on orbits (epicycles) all around the Earth. Epicycle Deferent Earth

  6. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  7. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  8. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  9. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  10. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  11. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  12. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  13. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  14. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  15. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  16. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  17. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  18. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  19. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  20. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  21. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  22. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  23. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  24. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  25. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  26. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  27. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  28. Ptolemy’s Epicycles

  29. Ptolemy’s Epicycles Where is retrograde motion occurring? Planet’s Path

  30. Ptolemy’s Epicycles Where is retrograde motion? Planet’s Path Planet’s Path

  31. On the Ptolemaic system: • “A system of this sort seemed neither sufficiently absolute nor sufficiently pleasing to the mind.” • --Copernicus

  32. Why heliocentric NOW??? • Renaissance: • art • literature • medicine • exploration

  33. Copernicus (1473 – 1543 AD) is known for : • First observations of the sun • First sun centered model of the solar system or universe • The world’s best naked-eye astronomical observations in history • Creating first a theoretical model to explain planetary motions • Creating first a theoretical model for explaining gravity

  34. Copernicus (1473 – 1543 AD) is known for - • First observations of the sun • First sun centered model of the solar system or universe • The world’s best naked-eye astronomical observations in history • Creating first theoretical model to explain planetary motions • Creating first a theoretical model for explaining gravity

  35. Copernicus (1473 – 1543 AD) - • Probably died a virgin • Was a priest and Lawyer • Had artificial wooden and silver noses • Probably died of Mercury poising • Rumored to have died of a bladder burst • Was blind at the time of his death • Was labeled a heretic by the church

  36. Copernicus (1473 – 1543 AD) - • Probably died a virgin • Was a priest and Lawyer • Had artificial wooden and silver noses • Probably died of Mercury poising • Rumored to have died of a bladder burst • Was blind at the time of his death • Was labeled a heretic by the church

  37. Retrograde motion is an apparent motion caused when one planet moves from being behind another planet to being in front of the other planet. Copernicus devised the first comprehensive heliocentric cosmogony to successfully explain retrograde motion

  38. “To demonstrate that the appearances are saved by assuming the Sun at the center and the Earth in the heavens is not the same thing as to demonstrate that in fact the Sun is in the center and the Earth in the heavens. I believe that the first demonstration may exist, but I have grave doubts about the second.” • --Cardinal Bellarmine • (1615)

  39. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) - • Probably died a virgin • Was a priest and Lawyer • Had artificial wooden and silver noses • Probably died of Mercury poising • Rumored to have died when his bladder burst • Was blind at the time of his death • Was labeled a heretic by the church

  40. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)- • Probably died a virgin • Was a priest and Lawyer • Had artificial wooden and silver noses • Probably died of Mercury poising • Rumored to have died when his bladder burst • Was blind at the time of his death • Was labeled a heretic by the church

  41. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) is known for - • First telescope observations of the sun • First sun centered scientific model of the solar system or universe • Being the world’s best naked-eye astronomer • Creating first theoretical model to explain planetary motions • Creating first a theoretical model for explaining gravity

  42. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) is known for - • First telescope observations of the sun • First sun centered scientific model of the solar system or universe • Being the world’s best naked-eye astronomer • Creating first theoretical model to explain planetary motions • Creating first a theoretical model for explaining gravity

  43. Tycho Brahe measured distances using parallax that disproved ancient ideas about the heavens • He observed a supernova in 1572 and with this showed that the heavens were both changing and had a dimension of distance; this troubled scholars who previously thought the heavens were unchanging. • He showed that comets were objects that occurred in the region of the planets, not in Earth’s atmosphere.

  44. Johannes Kepler 1571 - 1630 - • Probably died a virgin • Was a priest and Lawyer • Had artificial wooden and silver noses • Probably died of Mercury poising • Rumored to have died when his bladder burst • Was blind at the time of his death • Was labeled a heretic by the church

  45. Johannes Kepler 1571 - 1630 - • None of these. • He was a deeply religious man and a family man. • He was rumored to have hated Tycho Brahe and was in the relationship for the data. With that data he changed the understanding of motion of heavenly bodies forever. • He was also a writer, who wrote children stories about the heavens.

  46. Johannes Kepler 1571 - 1630is Known for - • First telescope observations of the sun • First sun centered scientific model of the solar system or universe • Being the world’s best naked-eye astronomer • Creating first theoretical model to explain planetary motions • Creating first a theoretical model for explaining gravity

  47. Johannes Kepler 1571 - 1630 is Known for - • First telescope observations of the sun • First sun centered scientific model of the solar system or universe • Being the world’s best naked-eye astronomer • Creating first theoretical model to explain planetary motions • Creating first a theoretical model for explaining gravity

  48. Kepler’s First Law: The orbit of a planet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus.

  49. Eccentricity, e • how squashed or out of round the ellipse is • a number ranging from 0 for a circle to 1 for a straight line • e = 0.02 • e = 0.7 • e = 0.9

  50. What is the shape of Earth’s orbit around the Sun? Earth, e = 0.016