Mr. Royer’s Unit 14 & 15 Review. “Chemical Bonding” and “Chemical Reactions” flashcards. Question. Most elements want to find “happiness” by…. Answer. Chemically bonding with other elements. Question. Gas bubbles is an indication that a…. Answer.
“Chemical Bonding” and “Chemical Reactions” flashcards
Most elements want to find “happiness” by…
Chemically bonding with other elements
Gas bubbles is an indication that a…
A chemical reaction (chemical change) has occurred.
Chemical changes create “new” matter, but what is really happening is…
A “rearrangement” of elements amongst compounds.
Use this comparison…there are 52 cards in a deck, a chemical change just means we reshuffled the cards around into a new order
A chemical bond is…
A force that brings elements together to create compounds.
When matter changes its shape, but retains (keeps) it’s chemical properties we know…
A physical change has occurred.
Example: glass bottle is dropped and hits the floor, shattering into pieces –its still glass!
Which sub-atomic particle is responsible for chemical bonds?
When two substances interact and a color change occurs we know a…
Chemical change has occurred.
Compounds and molecules are formed through…
Ice changing to water is an example of a…
A physical change
Nothing new created here, just changing its shape!
Between elements, how many electrons are shared/transferred to make a bond?
8 is the magic number of chemistry!!!
Light, fire, or heat indicates what type of change has occurred?
What does “valence” in valence electron(s) mean?
Furthest away from nucleus AND the electrons that dictate how an element bonds with others
The Noble Gasses all have 8 valence electrons, so they don’t bond with any other element!
What’s the easiest way to determine how many valence electrons an element has?
Use the “A-series” number!
1A = 1 valence electron
2A = 2 valence electrons…and so on
8A is the max and 8 is the “magic number” of chemistry!!
You cannot “undo” the product of what type of change?
Ya can’t undo what’cha done did. Na-mean?
What is the “octet rule” of chemistry?
Elements transfer or share electrons in order to achieve 8 valence electrons between them (create stability).
Successful electron dot diagrams show an “octagon” when the dots are connected.
How are electrons distributed in an ionic bond?
Electrons are transferred between elements
What type of elements comprise an ionic bond?
Must have 1 metal and 1 non-metal
What type of bond happens between metal elements?
Metal + metal = metallic
What type of bond happens between non-metal elements?
How are electrons distributed among elements in a covalent bond?
The electrons are shared.
In a covalent bond, when the electrons are shared equally the covalent bond is said to be…
Polar = pull (uneven share)
Non = no
Non-polar = no pull
Its kinda backwards, but that’s what it means!
When two substances react and a solid (precipitate) is produced, then a what type of change has occurred?
What type of change (physical or chemical) does a firework best exemplify?
Can’t get it back to the original product (new product after)
What is happening amongst the shared electrons of a polar covalent bond?
Polar = uneven pull
Mathematically, it must be
7 + 1 = 8 valence electrons
6 + 2 = 8 valence electrons
5 + 3 = 8 valence electrons
What type of bond (ionic or covalent) becomes “neutral” when elements combine?
Ionic bonds –charges cancel out
Remember, only covalent bonds can be polar (has a +/-charge due to uneven sharing)
Anion = Negative
Cation = Positive
Single, double, and triple shared pairs happen amongst…
Crystal structures, high melting points, and electrical conductivity belong to what bond type?
What type of bond creates a molecule?
Definite & predictable shapes along with low melting points belong to which bond type?
What bond type happens between a large quantity of covalently bonded elements?
Poly = many
What type of bond will occur between Lithium (Li) and Fluorine (F)?
1 metal + 1 non-metal
What type of bond will happen between Copper & Zinc?
Metal + metal
What type of bond would happen between Hydrogen (H) and Fluorine (F)?
Non-metal + non-metal
Remember, Hydrogen is the ONLY non-metal element on the metal side of the P. Table
What type of bond type creates a true “compound?”
What type of bond would happen between…
Nitrogen (N) + Lithium (Li) + Hydrogen (H) + Sodium (Na)?
At least 1 metal AND 1 non-metal are present.
CH4 would be an example of an ionic or covalent bond?
ALL non-metal elements
What type of change, physical or chemical, demonstrates new chemical properties in the matter observed?
During an apparent chemical change, energy in the form of heat, is absorbed by the reactants. This type of chemical reaction is known as…
An endothermic reaction
Endo = in = enter
A chemical equation is a short hand way of illustrating what type of change?
A chemical change
Noticing a pattern here?!?
How many reactants are present in this chemical equation?
H + Li + Na + N HLiNaN
4 separate elements (can be compounds too) are on the LEFT side of the arrow
What is the name for the matter produced in a chemical reaction?
How many elements are present in this compound?
2…Hydrogen(H) and Phosphorus (P)
How many total atoms are present in this atom?
4 x the 3 H = 12 +
4 x the 1 P = 4 … =16
Since we cannot create or destroy matter, we know a chemical reaction must be this on both sides of the reaction?
Balanced, even, or equal
When a reaction releases heat, as seen with a fire, during a chemical reaction we term this as a …
Ex = out = exit
Thermic = heat
What classification of a reaction takes multiple reactants and combines them into 1 complex product?
A synthetic reaction
A + B + C = ABC
Let the plus signs guide you
What is the term for the energy that speeds up a reaction?
What type of classification is denoted when elements swap spots, once or twice, during a reaction?
Replacement (or displacement) reaction
One, or two, elements are replacing each other after a reaction.
What do we call the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction?
To activate is to start
What is an inhibitor’s job in a chemical reaction?
To slow, or stop, a chemical reaction.
When compounds breakdown into smaller or multiple products we classify this reaction as…?
A decomposition reaction.
ABC = A + B + C
ABC = A + BC …either way there are more products than reactants!!!
The plus signs are only on the product side