applying qualitative methods in intervention research l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Applying Qualitative Methods in Intervention Research PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Applying Qualitative Methods in Intervention Research

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 30

Applying Qualitative Methods in Intervention Research - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 453 Views
  • Uploaded on

Applying Qualitative Methods in Intervention Research. Glorian Sorensen, PhD, MPH Harvard School of Public Health Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Overview. Uses of qualitative methods Toolbox of qualitative methods

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Applying Qualitative Methods in Intervention Research' - maribeth


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
applying qualitative methods in intervention research

Applying Qualitative Methods in Intervention Research

Glorian Sorensen, PhD, MPH

Harvard School of Public Health

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Boston, Massachusetts, USA

overview
Overview
  • Uses of qualitative methods
  • Toolbox of qualitative methods
  • Integration of qualitative and quantitative methods
  • Focus group methods
  • Examples from my research in the US and India
study design
Study design
  • Research question and guiding theoretical framework
  • Qualitative research study design and methods
    • sampling (non-random, purposive, theoretically-based)
    • gaining access
    • choosing data collection methods (interviews, documents, observation, etc)
    • ethical considerations
    • validity
  • Analysis
  • Reporting
qualitative methods toolbox
Qualitative methods toolbox
  • Individual interviews (structured, semi-structured)
  • Group interviews (focus groups and non-focus groups)
  • Observation (participant, unstructured, structured)
  • Document and archive reviews
on combining qualitative and quantitative
On combining qualitative and quantitative
  • Explore or refine constructs for surveys
  • Pre-test surveys
  • Pre-test intervention materials
  • Plan for survey administration
  • Interpret quantitative results
  • Understand process of change that may be measured through surveys
illustrative example combining qualitative and quantitative methods
Illustrative example combining qualitative and quantitative methods
  • Research problem: High rates of smoking among construction laborers
  • Research aims:
    • conduct formative research to assess smoking patterns and factors associated with smoking among laborers
    • develop and test a smoking cessation intervention, using an RCT design
laborers and smoking how can qualitative methods enhance study
Laborers and smoking: How can qualitative methods enhance study?
  • Survey constructs and administration
  • Develop intervention strategies and messages
  • Assess intervention components
  • Interpret quantitative study results
focus groups what and why
Focus groups: What and why?
  • Facilitated small group discussion
  • Experiences and perspectives
  • Exploring specific area of interest in detail; particularly useful for sensitive topics
  • Interaction among members is key
  • Not for generalizing findings
focus groups vs other methods
Focus groups vs. other methods

Individual interviews

+ multiple perspectives

+ observe interactions

+ participants help each other clarify ideas

- difficult to manage

- reluctant to reveal in group setting

- social norms influence responses

focus groups vs other methods11
Focus groups vs. other methods

Observation

+ more efficient

+ easier access

- relying on reports of behavior vs. actual observations of behavior

- not a natural setting

ethical considerations
Ethical considerations
  • Informed consent
  • Provide project description at start of group
  • Clarify confidentiality and anonymity (within group as well)
application of qualitative methods example
Application of qualitative methods: Example
  • Research questions
    • how do construction laborers view health risks associated with occupational exposures, poor nutrition, and tobacco use?
    • what kinds of health promotion strategies will effective in decreasing in tobacco use and increase in consumption of fruits and vegetables?
qualitative methods
Qualitative methods
  • Direct observation of worksites (for project staff to learn about range of work tasks, and understand where/when/with whom workers smoke, what they eat at break/meals, sources of food)
  • Group and individual interviews (two waves of interviews)
  • Formed a qualitative research working group for project
sampling
Sampling
  • Observation: convenience sample; close by; no major differences by region
  • Group and individual interviews: stratified by region; include racial/ethnic, gender, and age mix; current and former smokers
  • Recruitment and gaining access: through international union; training sites (bias?)
topic guide development
Topic guide development
  • Based on theoretical model we developed by mixing existing models (behavioral theories and work environment policy theory)
  • Working group developed topic guide
  • Pilot tested and refined guide
  • Revised throughout data collection (iterative)
data collection and analysis
Data collection and analysis
  • Trained staff to conduct interviews and code data
  • Collected data and almost immediately began analysis:
    • group discussions
    • coding (structural and thematic, multiple coders)
    • creation of themes document
    • revision of focus group guides
    • retrieving codes for thematic analysis
application of results to the intervention
Application of results to the intervention
  • Identify themes in qualitative data
  • Define intervention methods
  • Incorporate into intervention messages
  • Reflect in visuals in materials
  • Use in staff training
  • Apply to quality assurance
examples within the laborers intervention materials
Examples within the laborers’ intervention materials

Value of being fit for work

“Being a Laborer is a demanding job. You face hazards every day, and being healthy and fit enough to meet challenges is important… Being healthy means you’ve got the strength you need to get the job done — and take care of other responsibilities too.”

[General President’s introduction to the TFR]

examples within the laborers intervention materials20
Examples within the laborers’ intervention materials

Value of family and friends

“Tobacco use can be a problem for your family members and your LIUNA brothers and sisters too. That’s because secondhand smoke causes over 53,000 deaths a year among people who don’t even use tobacco — spouses, co-workers, buddies.”

examples within the laborers intervention materials21
Examples within the laborers’ intervention materials

Health concerns

“…[O]ne thing you can do is make good decisions about your health. Sometimes that means talking to your steward if you’re worried about on-the-job exposures or hazards. Other times, it means taking control of your personal health, and doing what you can to make your body stronger and healthier. This is where [the program counselor] can help.”

planned tobacco control research in india
Planned tobacco control research in India
  • Analysis of Global School Personnel Survey
  • Focus groups to elucidate observed relationships
  • Apply to intervention development
summary applications of qualitative methods in intervention research
Summary: Applications of qualitative methods in intervention research
  • Understanding the social context of the population
  • Survey development
  • Intervention design
  • Staff training
  • Understanding the process of observed changes
focus groups size and number
Focus groups: Size and number
  • Six to eight participants
  • Over-recruit slightly and reminder about group day before
  • Three to five groups per topic of interest
  • Saturation: when stop hearing new info
constructing a topic guide
Constructing a topic guide
  • Avoid close-ended questions: going for experience and perspectives
  • Based on your research questions
  • Topic areas, then questions within each topic, list probes
  • Start with icebreakers and “easy” question
data management and analysis
Data management and analysis
  • Transcribe recordings and check
  • In-depth analysis
  • Analysis across groups by theme
focus groups composition
Focus groups: Composition
  • Purposive
  • Sub-groups — return to your research question
  • Homogenous vs. heterogeneous
logistics
Logistics
  • Eligibility screening
  • Conducted in primary language of group
  • Length: 1-2 hours, no more
  • Location: convenient
  • Tape record
  • Take notes (note-taker)
  • Incentives
focus group facilitation
Focus group facilitation
  • Two people: facilitator and note-taker
  • Show interest and respect
  • Introduce group members and yourself
  • Actively listen; follow leads but stay “on topic”
  • Encourage between-participant discussion; avoid group interview dynamic
  • Eye contact tip