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Detail of George Washington arriving by boat in New York on April 23, 1789, for presidential inauguration. PowerPoint Presentation
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Detail of George Washington arriving by boat in New York on April 23, 1789, for presidential inauguration.

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Detail of George Washington arriving by boat in New York on April 23, 1789, for presidential inauguration.

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Detail of George Washington arriving by boat in New York on April 23, 1789, for presidential inauguration.

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  1. Launching a New Republic,1789–1800 The leaders of the new nation face the challenges of establishing a strong economy and a stable, democratic government. Detail of George Washington arriving by boat in New York on April 23, 1789, for presidential inauguration. NEXT

  2. Launching a New Republic,1789–1800 SECTION 1 Washington’s Presidency Challenges to the New Government SECTION 2 The Federalists in Charge SECTION 3 NEXT

  3. Section 1 Washington’s Presidency The president and the Congress begin to set up the new government. NEXT

  4. SECTION 1 Washington’s Presidency Washington Takes Office • George Washington inaugurated, sworn in, as 1st U.S. President (1789) Image • John Adams, first vice-president • Washington knows every action as president will set a precedent • Congress agrees to call Washington “Mr. President” NEXT

  5. SECTION 1 Setting Up the Courts • Congress passes the Federal Judiciary Act(1789) • Gives Supreme Court six members: - 1 chief justice or judge - 5 associate judges • The number of judges later grows to nine • Act also provides for lower federal courts • John Jay is named chief justice NEXT

  6. SECTION 1 Washington’s Cabinet • Congress creates 3 departments to help the president: - war department - state department - treasury department • Heads of departments are president’s cabinet Continued . . . NEXT

  7. SECTION 1 Continued Washington’s Cabinet • Secretary of war, Henry Knox, oversees the nation’s defense • Secretary of state, Thomas Jefferson, oversees diplomatic relations • Secretary of the treasury, Alexander Hamilton, manages U.S. finances Image • Attorney general, Edmund Randolph, gives legal advice NEXT

  8. SECTION 1 Economic Problems • By 1789, U.S. has huge national debt—$52 million • U.S. must pay debt to gain respect of other countries • Alexander Hamilton’s financial plan shows his belief in: - a strong central government - government encouraging business, industry - pay debt to nation’s wealthy, gain their support for government NEXT

  9. SECTION 1 Hamilton’s Financial Plan • Alexander Hamilton proposes 3-step financial plan to Congress (1790) - pay off all war debts - raise government revenues - create a national bank • Many southern states have paid war debts, northern states have not • To gain southern support, U.S. agrees to place capital in South Image Continued . . . NEXT

  10. SECTION 1 Continued Hamilton’s Financial Plan • Hamilton supports tariffs (tax on imported goods) because: - raises money for U.S. government - encourages growth of U.S. industry - encourages people to buy American goods • Hamilton calls for National bank, safe for government investments • Bank would make loans to businesses, issue bank notes NEXT

  11. SECTION 1 Interpreting the Constitution • Thomas Jefferson, James Madison against a national bank • Claim that the Constitution does not allow for a national bank • Alexander Hamilton has more flexible interpretation of Constitution • Claims Congress has power to set up bank • George Washington approves a national bank (1791) NEXT

  12. Section 2 Challenges to the New Government Washington establishes central authority at home and avoids war with European powers. NEXT

  13. SECTION 2 Challenges to the New Government Securing the Northwest Territory • Trans-Appalachian West between the Appalachians, Mississippi River Map • Spain, Britain, U.S., Native Americans all claim parts of land • Spain threatens to close New Orleans’ port to American trade • Stirs up trouble between white settlers, Native Americans • Britain violates Treaty of Paris, holds forts in Northwest Territory • Supports Native Americans who clash with American settlers NEXT

  14. SECTION 2 Battle of Fallen Timbers • President Washington sends troops into Northwest Territory • Native American tribes defeat U.S. troops twice • Washington sends more troops led by Anthony Wayne • Defeat Native Americans at Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) Image • 12 tribes sign Treaty of Greenville with United States (1795) - surrender much of present-day Ohio, Indiana to the U.S. NEXT

  15. SECTION 2 The Whiskey Rebellion • Farmers resist U.S. tax on whiskey • More economical for farmers to sell rye whiskey than bushels of rye • Use whiskey as money to get supplies • In Pennsylvania, farmers stage Whiskey Rebellion against tax (1794) Image • Troops subdue rebellion, show government has power to enforce laws NEXT

  16. SECTION 2 The French Revolution • French Revolution—French people rebel against their government Image • France declares war on Britain, Holland, Spain • Some Americans want U.S. to support revolution and the cause of liberty • Others do not want war with Britain • U.S. remains neutral, not siding with one country or other (1793) NEXT

  17. SECTION 2 Remaining Neutral • British seize cargoes of American ships from the French West Indies • Seizures make it difficult for the U.S. to remain neutral • U.S. Chief Justice John Jay convinces British to sign Jay’s Treaty (1794) • British pay for damages to U.S. vessels, leave Ohio Valley by 1796 • Jay fails to open profitable British West Indies trade to Americans Continued . . . NEXT

  18. SECTION 2 Continued Remaining Neutral • Thomas Pinckney convinces Spain to sign Pinckney’s Treaty (1795): - allows Americans to travel freely on the Mississippi River - store goods at New Orleans without custom duties • Spain accepts 31st parallel as boundary between Florida, U.S. NEXT

  19. Section 3 The Federalists in Charge The split between Hamilton and Jefferson leads to the growth of political parties. NEXT

  20. SECTION 3 The Federalists in Charge Washington Retires • During second term, George Washington receives some criticism • Washington warns that political divisions can weaken the nation • Relations with governments of other countries—foreign policy • Washington urges U.S. not to form permanent alliances with nations – foreshadowing or what??? NEXT

  21. SECTION 3 Growth of Political Parties • Alexander Hamilton’s views: - opposes French Revolution - for strong central government - promotes trade, manufacturing, cities • Thomas Jefferson’s and James Madison’s views: - for French Revolution - strong government could lead to tyranny - promote farming • Differences lead to the nation’s first political parties Continued . . . NEXT

  22. SECTION 3 Continued Growth of Political Parties • Political party: group that promotes its ideas, influences government Chart • Thomas Jefferson, James Madison start Democratic-Republican Party • Alexander Hamilton and friends start the Federalist Party NEXT

  23. SECTION 3 John Adams Takes Office • John Adams is presidential candidate for Federalists • Thomas Jefferson is candidate for Democratic-Republicans • Adams wins election; runner-up, Jefferson, is vice-president (1797) NEXT

  24. SECTION 3 Problems with France • In 1797, Britain and France still at war Image • French seize U.S. ships, prevent trade with British • Federalists want war with France • President Adams wants to restore calm Continued . . . NEXT

  25. SECTION 3 Continued Problems with France • President Adams sends diplomats to France, they are ignored • 3 French agents (known as X,Y, Z) ask for loan, bribe from diplomats • Americans are outraged by XYZ Affair Image • Congress cancels treaties, allows U.S. to seize French ships NEXT

  26. SECTION 3 The Alien and Sedition Acts • Democratic-Republicans, Federalists criticize each other • To stop criticism of Federalists, President Adams targets immigrants • Many immigrants are Democratic-Republicans Image • Federalist Congress passes the Alien and Sedition Acts (1798): - power to arrest disloyal aliens during wartime - outlaws saying, writing anything false, harmful against government Continued . . . NEXT

  27. SECTION 3 Continued The Alien and Sedition Acts • Alien and Sedition Acts clamp down on freedom of speech • Democratic-Republicans use states’ rightsto fight acts • State can refuse to pass a federal law if it sees law as unconstitutional • Kentucky, Virginia find Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional • Democratic-Republicans gain control of Congress • Repeal acts or let them expire between 1800 and 1802 NEXT

  28. SECTION 3 Peace with France • U.S. and France make peace, sign Convention of 1800: - stops naval attacks between France and U.S. - allows U.S., French ships to sail the ocean in peace NEXT

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