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GEORGE WASHINGTON 1789-1797

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GEORGE WASHINGTON 1789-1797

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  1. GEORGE WASHINGTON1789-1797

  2. GEORGE WASHINGTON

  3. FOREIGN AFFAIRS • 1st term coincided with the end of the French Revolution • France goes to war with European countries • Asks America for help • Americans support French cause, especially Jefferson • Washington issues Proclamation of Neutrality

  4. FOREIGN AFFAIRS • British stopping American ships taking goods and impressment of sailors • Washington sends Chief Justice John Jay to England • Year of negotiation • Jay’s Treaty 1794 • British agreed to evacuate posts on the western frontier • Set exact amount of money owed to British merchants • Said nothing about the ships • Seen as a failure

  5. FOREIGN AFFAIRS • Seeing Jay’s Treaty as an alliance between England & US, Spain gets nervous • Closes the Mississippi River and New Orleans • Thomas Pickney-US ambassador to Spain negotiates treaty • Pickney’s Treaty • Reopens the river & port

  6. DOMESTIC AFFAIRS • 1794-Farmers in Pennsylvania upset over federal excise tax on Whiskey • Refuse to pay, attack tax collectors • Washington leads 15,000 troops • Rebellion collapses • First test-shows power of new federal government

  7. DOMESTIC AFFAIRS • Washington creates group of advisors called the “Cabinet” • Treasury-Alexander Hamilton • State-Thomas Jefferson • War-Henry Knox • Justice-Edmund Randolph

  8. FIRST CABINET

  9. POLITICAL PARTIES • Country divided over Hamilton’s financial program • Creation of first political parties • Federalists • Alexander Hamilton & John Adams • Loose interpretation of Constitution • Pro-British • Strong Federal government • Supported in New England, businessmen, large landowners

  10. POLITICAL PARTIES • Democratic-Republicans • Thomas Jefferson & James Madison • Strict interpretation of Constitution • Pro-France • Strong state governments, opposed financial plan • Supported by “common” man; workers, small farmers, south and west

  11. FAREWELL ADDRESS • 1796-Washington announces he will not run for a 3rd term • Sets precedent for two term tradition • Gives a speech printed in every newspaper • Warns against • European Alliances • Political parties • Sectionalism

  12. ELECTION OF 1796 • Federalists-John Adams • Democratic-Republicans-Thomas Jefferson • Adams wins by 3 electoral votes • Thomas Jefferson became vice president

  13. JOHN ADAMS1797-1801

  14. JOHN ADAMS

  15. French begin seizing American ships & sailors Adams sends 3 men to negotiate treaty French officials want money, Americans refuse French officials don’t give names-only known as X, Y, Z Americans want war Adams continues negotiations FOREIGN AFFAIRS

  16. DOMESTIC AFFAIRS • Public anger against France strengthen Federalists in Congress • Adopted laws to restrict Democratic-Republicans • Naturalization Act-increased the years required for immigrants to qualify for citizenship • Alien Acts-Authorized the president to deport any Aliens considered “dangerous” • Sedition Acts-made it illegal to criticize either the president or Congress

  17. DOMESTIC AFFAIRS • Democratic-Republicans argue violates rights of speech and press • The Virginia legislature (supported by Madison) and the Kentucky legislature (supported by Jefferson) write resolution • 1799-states had entered into a contract with the federal government. If contract broke, then states can declare Acts unconstitutional

  18. ELECTION OF 1800 • Federalists-John Adams • Democratic-Republicans-Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Burr • No one receives majority of electoral votes • House of Representatives decides • Hamilton urges Federalists to vote for Jefferson (less dangerous than Burr)