Agents used in anemias hematopoietic growth factors
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Agents used in anemias & hematopoietic growth factors. By: S.Bohlooli, Ph.D. Agents used in anemias. Iron Vitamin B12 Folic acid. Iron. Iron deficiency most common nutritional cause of anemia

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Agents used in anemias hematopoietic growth factors

Agents used in anemias &hematopoietic growth factors

By: S.Bohlooli, Ph.D.


Agents used in anemias
Agents used in anemias

  • Iron

  • Vitamin B12

  • Folic acid


Agents used in anemias hematopoietic growth factors
Iron

  • Iron deficiency

    • most common nutritional cause of anemia

    • result from inadequate iron intake, malabsorption, blood loss, or an increased requirement, as with pregnancy







Clinical pharmacology
Clinical pharmacology

  • Indication for the use of iron

    • Treatment or prevention of iron deficiency anemia

  • Treatment

    • Oral iron therapy

    • Parenteral iron therapy



Oral iron therapy adverse effects
Oral iron therapy adverse effects

  • Nausea

  • Epigastric discomfort

  • Abdominal cramps

  • Constipation

  • Diarrhea


Clinical toxicity
Clinical toxicity

  • Acute iron toxicity

    • Necrotizing gastroenteritis

    • Vomiting, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea

    • Followed by shock, lethargy, dyspnea

    • Severe metabolic acidosis, coma, death

  • Chronic iron toxicity (hemochromatosis)

    • Deposit of iron in the heart, liver, pancreas

    • Can lead to organ failure and death






Vitamin b12 clinical pharmacology
Vitamin B12: clinical pharmacology

  • Treat or prevent deficiency

    • Megaloblastic anemia

    • Neurologic syndrome

      • Degeneration of myelin sheaths

      • Disruption of axons in the dorsal and lateral horns of spinal cord and in peripheral nerves

  • Most cause of deficiency:

    • Pernicious anemia, partial or total gastroctomy

    • Disease affect the distal ileum:

      • Inflammatory bowel disease

      • Small bowel resection




Folic acid clinical pharmacology
Folic acid: Clinical pharmacology

  • Deficiency

    • result in megaloblastic anemia

    • Often caused by inadequate dietary intake

  • Pregnant woman has increased folate requirement

  • A dose of 1 mg is sufficient


Hematopoietic growth factors
Hematopoietic growth factors

  • Erythropoietin

  • Granulcyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)

  • Granulcyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)

  • Interleukin 11