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Pearl Harbor Raid

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  1. Pearl Harbor Raid 7 December 1941

  2. The 7 December 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was one of the most defining moments in American history

  3. Why?

  4. Carefully-planned & well-executed attack removed the U.S. Navy’s battleship force as a battleship force as a possible threat to the Japanese Empire’s southward expansion

  5. Attack at Pearl Harbor • America was unprepared & considerably weakened • Attack caused the U.S. to formally enter WWII • Memory of “sneak attack” fueled a U.S. determination to fight

  6. Attack at Pearl Harbor • U.S. Naval fleet in the Pacific was anchored at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

  7. Attack at Pearl Harbor • On Sunday morning, December 7, 1941, while most American sailors were still asleep in their bunks, Japanese planes from aircraft carriers flew over Pearl Harbor

  8. Attack at Pearl Harbor • Planes and submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy began a surprise attack on the U.S. under the Command of Vice Admiral Chuichi

  9. Attack at Pearl Harbor • Japanese planes from aircraft carriers flew over Pearl Harbor bombing every ship in sight

  10. Attack at Pearl Harbor • Lasted less than 2 hours • 2,403 Americans were killed (including over 1,100 when the battleship Arizona sank) • 68 civilians were killed • Almost 1,200 were wounded • Approximately 150 airplanes were destroyed

  11. Attack at Pearl Harbor • 20 warships were sunk • Approximately 150 airplanes were destroyed

  12. Partial Surprise • American people were stunned by the attack on Pearl Harbor • High government officials, however, knew that an attack somewhere in the Pacific was imminent because they had broken the Japanese codes

  13. Partial Surprise • Government officials did not know the exact target & date for the attack • Many believed the attack would be in the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies, or Malaya

  14. Partial Surprise • Attack might have been no surprise as vital intelligence information was not passed to the Navy commander Admiral Kimmel

  15. Disputes With Japan • By 1940 U.S. relations with Japan were becoming increasingly strained • Reason: Japan’s invasion of China & territorial ambitions to extend its conquests to Southeast Asia

  16. Disputes With Japan • Beginning in 1940, Japan was allied with Germany & Italy as one of the Axis powers

  17. Disputes With Japan • Hitler’s success in Europe provided an opportunity for Japanese expansion into the Southeast Asia (British Burma, French Indochina) • Territories held as colonies by European nations

  18. Disputes With Japan • European nations were too preoccupied with stopping Hitler’s expansion in Europe

  19. U.S. Economic Action • When Japan joined the Axis in September 1940, FDR responded by prohibiting the export of steel and scrap iron to all countries except Britain and nations of the Western Hemisphere

  20. U.S. Economic Action • His action was aimed at Japan which protested that it was an “unfriendly act”

  21. U.S. Economic Action • In July 1941, Japanese troops occupied French Indochina • FDR cut off Japanese access to vital materials, including U.S. oil (trade embargo)

  22. Negotiations • Both sides (U.S. & Japan) realized that Japan needed oil to fuel its navy & air force • If the U.S. embargo on oil did not end, Japan would be forced to extend its conquests by taking oil resources in the Dutch East Indies

  23. Negotiations • Secretary of State Hull insisted that Japan pull its troops out of China, which Japan refused to do • Violation of Open Door policy

  24. Negotiations • Japanese ambassador to the U.S. tried to negotiate a change in U.S. policy regarding oil • Agreement seemed unlikely

  25. Negotiations • In October, a new Japanese government headed by General Hideki Tojo made a final attempt at negotiating an agreement • Neither side changed its position

  26. Negotiations • FDR’s military advisers hoped that an armed confrontation with Japan could be delayed until U.S. armed forces in the Pacific were sufficiently strong

  27. Negotiations • Japan believed that quick action was necessary due to its limited oil supplies

  28. Why did Japan Attacked America? • Japan was trying to become the dominant power in East Asia and the Pacific • They had invaded China in 1933 & were preparing to conquer Indochina, Malaysia & the Pacific Islands

  29. Why did Japan Attacked America? • They wanted to control these territories so they could use the badly needed oil raw materials in them for their own industries

  30. Why did Japan Attacked America • U.S. had been growing steadily more opposed to the Japanese expansion • Japan knew if they attacked those other countries the U.S. might go to war to stop them

  31. Why did Japan Attacked America? • Japan decided to attack us first • They hoped they could cripple us so we could not oppose them while they grabbed as much territory as they could • Once they had the territory, they hoped America would make peace with them & let them keep it