slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Word Meaning PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Word Meaning

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 50

Word Meaning - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 402 Views
  • Uploaded on

5. Word Meaning. Word Meaning. Two aspects of a word : 1. form—sound and spelling 2. content—meaning cat /k æ t/ = a small four-legged animal with soft fur and sharp claws Word-meaning is what the word denotes. 5.1 The Meanings of ‘meaning’. Meaning is reference.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Word Meaning' - margie


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1
5

Word Meaning

word meaning
Word Meaning
  • Two aspects of a word:
  • 1. form—sound and spelling
  • 2. content—meaning
  • cat /kæt/ = a small four-legged animal with soft fur and sharp claws
  • Word-meaning is what the word denotes.
5 1 the meanings of meaning
5.1 The Meanings of ‘meaning’

Meaning is reference.

5 1 1 reference
5. 1. 1. Reference
  • the meaning triangle

concept/idea

referent

reference

train /trein/

5 1 1 reference1
5. 1. 1. Reference
  • Meaning is reference.
  • Reference is the connection between the word form and what the form refers to in the world.
  • Reference is the relationship between language and the world.
5 1 2 concept
5.1.2 Concept
  • Meaning is concept.
5 1 2 concept1
5.1.2 Concept
  • Meaning and concept are closely connected but not identical.
  • Concept is beyond language.
  • It is the result of human cognition, reflecting the objective world in the human mind.
5 1 1 concept
5. 1. 1. Concept
  • the meaning triangle

concept/idea

referent

reference

train /trein/

5 1 2 concept2
5.1.2 Concept
  • Concept is universal to all men alike regardless of culture, race, language and so on, whereas meaning belongs to language, so is restricted to language use.
5 1 2 concept3
5.1.2 Concept
  • 妇女
  • Frau
  • femme

concept

language

5 1 2 concept4
5.1.2 Concept
  • 很多
  • (concept)
  • much time many people
  • much money many books
  • much water many buildings
5 1 3 sense
5. 1. 3. Sense
  • Meaning is sense.
5 1 3 sense1
5. 1. 3. Sense
  • Difference:
  • Reference is connected with language.
  • Concept is beyond language.
  • Sense is within the language.
5 1 3 sense2
5. 1. 3. Sense
  • Every word that has meaning has sense, but not reference.
  • probable, nearly, and, if, but, yes
  • pavement—sidewalk
  • pal—chum
5 1 3 sense3
5. 1. 3. Sense
  • So in most cases, when we talk about the meaning of a word, we actually mean sense.
5 2 motivation1
5.2 Motivation
  • Motivation accounts for the connection between the linguistic symbol and its meaning.
  • Since the relationship between the word-form and meaning is conventional and arbitrary, most words can be said to be non-motivated.
5 2 motivation2
5.2 Motivation
  • But English does have words whose meanings can be reasonably explained to a certain extent.
  • There are mainly four types of motivation.
5 2 1 onomatopoeic motivation
5. 2. 1. Onomatopoeic Motivation
  • Words whose sounds suggest their meanings = onomatopeic words
  • Two types of words according to their sound similarity
5 2 1 onomatopoeic motivation1
5. 2. 1. Onomatopoeic Motivation
  • 1. Primary onomatopoeia
  • bow wow ha ha
  • ping-pong miaow
  • cuckoo tick-tuck
5 2 1 onomatopoeic motivation2
5. 2. 1. Onomatopoeic Motivation
  • 2. Secondary onomatopoeia
  • cock—crow
  • duck—quack
  • frog—croak
  • mice—squeak
  • horse—neigh
  • goat—bleat
5 2 2 morphological motivation
5. 2. 2. Morphological Motivation
  • Examples:
  • airmail: mail by air
  • reading-lamp: lamp for reading
  • miniskirt: small skirt
  • The morphological structure suggests the meanings of the words.
5 2 2 morphological motivation1
5. 2. 2. Morphological Motivation
  • BUT
  • blackmail≠ mail black in colour 讹诈
  • greenhand≠ hand green in colour 新手
  • They are morphologically non-motivated.
5 2 3 semantic motivation
5. 2.3. Semantic Motivation
  • Examples:
  • the tongue of the bell
  • the mouth of the river
  • The Yellow River is the cradle of Chinese civilization.

These words are not used in their literal sense, but figurative meaning.

5 2 3 semantic motivation1
5. 2.3. Semantic Motivation
  • We can understand them because there is a kind of resemblance between the two.
  • The figurative meaning is suggested by the literal meaning.
5 2 4 etymological motivation
5. 2. 4. Etymological Motivation
  • Examples:
  • pen = feather → quill pen → any writing tool
  • 笔=bamboo + hair → modern writing tool
  • quisling = Quisling → traitor
  • braille = Braille → language for the blind
  • The meanings are related to their origins.
  • The meanings can be etymologically explained.
5 3 types of meaning
5.3 Types of Meaning
  • Word-meaning has different components.
  • These different components can be called different types of meaning.
5 3 1 grammatical and lexical meaning
5. 3.1. Grammatical and Lexical Meaning
  • Grammatical meaning
  • Examples:
  • singular and plural meaning of nouns
  • countable and uncountable
  • tense meaning of verbs and their inflectional forms
  • transitive and intransitive
5 3 1 grammatical and lexical meaning1
5. 3.1. Grammatical and Lexical Meaning
  • Grammatical meaning show grammatical concepts or relationships.
  • What is left of the meaning of a word is the lexical meaning.
  • Lexical meaning is the basic meaning of the word, which is listed in the dictionary.
5 3 1 grammatical and lexical meaning2
5. 3.1. Grammatical and Lexical Meaning
  • Characteristics:
  • 1. Different lexical items, which have different lexical meanings, may have the same grammatical meaning:
  • tables, men, oxen, potatoes
5 3 1 grammatical and lexical meaning3
5. 3.1. Grammatical and Lexical Meaning
  • 2. The same word may have different grammatical meaning:
  • forget, forgets, forgot, forgotten, forgetting
5 3 1 grammatical and lexical meaning4
5. 3.1. Grammatical and Lexical Meaning

grammatical meaning

word-meaning

lexical meaning

5 3 1 grammatical and lexical meaning5
5. 3.1. Grammatical and Lexical Meaning

conceptual meaning(CM)

lexical meaning

associative meaning(AM)

5 3 2 conceptual and associative meaning
5. 3. 2 Conceptual and associative meaning
  • Conceptual meaning (denotative meaning) is the meaning given in the dictionary and forms the core of word-meaning.
  • Associative meaning is the secondary meaning supplemented to the conceptual meaning.
5 3 2 conceptual and associative meaning1
5. 3. 2 Conceptual and associative meaning
  • Compare:
  • CM AM

fundamental

secondary

universal

contextual

changing/ open-ended/ indeterminate

stable

5 3 2 conceptual and associative meaning2
5. 3. 2 Conceptual and associative meaning
  • Associative meaning may change according to contextual factors such as:
  • social background,
  • role relationship,
  • culture,
  • age,
  • sex,
  • time, etc.)
5 3 2 conceptual and associative meaning3
5. 3. 2 Conceptual and associative meaning

connotative M (ConM)

stylistic M (SM)

affective M (AfM)

collocative M (ConM)

associative M

5 3 2 conceptual and associative meaning4
5. 3. 2 Conceptual and associative meaning
  • 1. Connotative meaning
  • Definition:
  • Connotative meaning refers to the overtones or associations suggested by the conceptual meaning, traditionally known as connotations.
5 3 2 conceptual and associative meaning5
5. 3. 2 Conceptual and associative meaning
  • Example: dragon
  • Chinese Western

power

violence

monster

prosperity

killing

good fortune

royalty

5 3 2 conceptual and associative meaning6
5. 3. 2 Conceptual and associative meaning
  • Be a man.
  •   strength
  • decisiveness
  • wisdom
  • courage
  • etc.
5 3 2 conceptual and associative meaning7
5. 3. 2 Conceptual and associative meaning
  • 2. Stylistic meaning
  • The stylistic meaning of a word is its stylistic feature: formal, informal, neutral.
  • Examples:
  • room chamber
  • finish complete
  • send dispatch
  • try endeavour
5 3 2 conceptual and associative meaning8
5. 3. 2 Conceptual and associative meaning
  • Martin Joos’ five scales:
  • frozen
  • formal
  • consultative
  • casual
  • intimate
5 3 2 conceptual and associative meaning9
5. 3. 2 Conceptual and associative meaning

horse

  • charger frozen
  • steed formal
  • horse consultative
  • nag casual
  • plug intimate
5 3 2 conceptual and associative meaning10
5. 3. 2 Conceptual and associative meaning
  • father, dad, daddy, pa, pappa,
  • governor, male parent
5 3 2 conceptual and associative meaning11
5. 3. 2 Conceptual and associative meaning
  • 3. Affective meaning
  • Affective meaning indicates the speaker’s attitude towards the person or thing in question. This meaning can be overtly and explicitly conveyed.
  • love, hate, anger, happy
5 3 2 conceptual and associative meaning12
5. 3. 2 Conceptual and associative meaning
  • appreciative pejorative
  • famous notorious
  • determined pigheaded
  • slim/slender skinny/bony/skeletal
5 3 2 conceptual and associative meaning13
5. 3. 2 Conceptual and associative meaning
  • 4. Collocative meaning
  • The part of the word-meaning is reflected in the collocation.
5 3 2 conceptual and associative meaning14
5. 3. 2 Conceptual and associative meaning
  • Examples:
  • green on the job (inexperienced)
  • green fruit (unripe)
  • green with envy (envious)
  • green-eyed monster (green colour)
5 3 2 conceptual and associative meaning15
5. 3. 2 Conceptual and associative meaning

person

  • 1. Every dog has his day.
  • 2. Let sleeping dogs lie.
  • 3. Love me, love my dog.

troubles

friend