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The Motivational Basis of Effective Performance and Well-being Edward L. Deci. Motivation Concerns the Energy for Action It’s what Moves People to Behave. The Traditional View: Motivation is unitary The Differentiated View: There are types of motivation that function differently.
Edward L. Deci
the Energy for Action
It’s what Moves People to Behave
The Differentiated View: There are types of motivation that function differently
sense of belonging with others
Sense of effectance and confidence
in one’s context
Behave in accord with abiding
values and interests; actions would be
AutonomyAdditional Key Aspect of SDT:The Basic Psychological Needs
Doing an activity specifically because it leads to a separate consequence such as a reward, avoidance of a punishment, or social approval.
Results of 92 Experiments on the Effects of Incentives on Intrinsic Motivation
Because people have a fundamental human need to be autonomous rather than controlled. Chasing the carrot is being controlled, and thwarts autonomy.
Threats of Punishment (Deci & Cascio)
Deadlines (Amabile et al.)
Competition (Deci et al.)
Why? Because they tend to control people
externally and thus undermine autonomy.
Providing Choice (Zuckerman et al.)
Acknowledging feelings (Koestner et al.)
Because they enhance people’s experience of autonomy
Increases intrinsic motivation
Decreases intrinsic motivation
Because we also have a fundamental psychological need to be competent
Some activities in our lives are not intrinsically interesting, and that’s where extrinsic motivation comes in.
People tend to internalize aspects of the environment (e.g., extrinsic motivation) that are endorsed by important others.
Because they have a need for relatedness
External Regulation: No Internalization
* Pressured by external contingencies
Introjected Regulation:Partial Internalization
* Pressured by internal contingencies
* Not true self-regulation
Identified/Integrated Regulation: Full Internalization
* Feel a sense of full sense of autonomy and choice
Intrinsic motivation + Identified/Integrated regulation
External regulation + Introjected regulation
Work Performance Evaluation
Work-Related Autonomy Competence Relatedness
Manager’s Need Support
Well-Being and Mental Health
Baard, Deci, and Ryan (2004)
Intervention at the Branch Level (200 employees) Included 13 Days of an External Change Agent Working with the Managerial Team (Branch Manager and 8 Field Managers) Over a Ten-Week Period
1 Day with the Branch Manager
5 Days working with the Management Team, off-site
7 Days Working with Individual Field Managers and Their Teams of about 18 Technicians
Including Improvements in:
Trust in Corporation
Satisfaction with Job Characteristics