Personality influences how we respond to the environment Idealist Traditionalist Realist Hedonist
One way marketers try to use personality variables is to link product benefits with consumer personality type • Personality TypeDesired Auto Benefit Extroverted Warm Affiliative Subdued Introverted Cool Freedom Enjoyment Tradition Relaxation Compromise Control
Freudian Theory • struggle between Id (pleasure), Superego (reason) and Ego (moderates between Id and Superego) • Id desires pleasures (sex) • Superego says its socially unacceptable • Ego says I’ll find a socially acceptable way (i. e. symbolic sex) • so that Superego is happy and Id can have its pleasure.
Conflict Between the Id and Superego • This ad focuses on the conflict between the desire for hedonic gratification (represented by the id) versus the need to engage in rational, task-oriented activities (represented by the superego).
MarketingApplications • Products symbolically satisfy consumers sexual needs --- substitute the product for the real thing "There are a number of mechanical devices which increase sexual arousal, particularly in women. Chief among these is the Mercedes-Benz 380SL.“ Lynn Lavner
Others focus on male-oriented symbolism - the phallic symbol. Do Phallic Symbols in Advertising Really exist or is it a coincidence?
Why does advertising use sex as an appeal to the consumer? Because it works. Sex is the second strongest of the psychological appeals, right behind self-preservation. Sexual desire’s strength is biological and instinctive. For many products it is possible to find (or invent) a sexual connection.
The effectiveness of sex in advertising is gender linked. • Men have minimal criteria for sexual desire • "Women need a reason to have sex. Men just need a place.” Billy Crystal • Basically, they are concerned with a woman's anatomy -- as long as a woman looks young enough and healthy, she is desirable. • in ads it’s easy to get a man's attention by using women's bodies and associate getting the woman if he buys the product.
Often female models are placed in sexually explicit and compromising positions, sexually submissive postures, and with sexually connotative facial expressions. • Media definitions of sexual attractiveness promote either extreme thinness or a thin waist with large hips and breasts Hanes Resilience 1996 • The sexual connection is much easier to set up for men than for women.
It’s not just women who are demeaned in using sex in advertising, there is a school of advertising that says men's bodies, brains and self-esteem are legitimate targets to attack, exploit and belittle (no pun intended). “As her date removed his pants, Sheila suddenly recalled a hilarious radio show she’d heard that morning. Later, when pressed she’d admit the timing was unfortunate” Radio Band of America
The use of sex in advertising to women is more difficult • Although use of healthy, fit men may attract attention and create desire, a man's body is often not enough • For a woman, sexual desire is a complex mixture of such factors as money, power, prestige, etc
To sell to a woman, advertising relies on the modern idea about how men and women relate -- romance. • Although an ad may use a man's body as an attention getting device, he is often shown in a romantic rather than sexual context.
Motivational Research Why do women tend to increase their expenditures on clothing and personal adornment products as they approach the age of 50 to 55?
Motivational Research • assumes unconscious motives influence consumer behavior • research tries to identify these underlying unconscious forces (e.g., cultural factors, sociological forces). • Marketers can therefore better understand the target audience and how to influence that audience. • Qualitative as opposed to quantitative • standard marketing research survey can’t reveal these motives • Three major techniques • Observation • Focus Groups • In-Depth Interviews
Mr. Apple Mr IBM Brand personality:He's always been super bright about computers, and a high achiever at the University. But he's totally cool and down to earth, with a subtle sense of humour. Not a nerd at all. But witty, fun, and creative. 20, maybe early 30 something years old. Masculine, but sensitivee Brand personality:Formal and professional. Perhaps a bit stiff, or "square." But tops in his class intellectually. He's gone to the best University, with an advanced degree. And he has very polished social skills. 40ish years old. Masculine, perhaps a bit macho.
BRAND PERSONALITY The type of person the brand represents The Quaker Oats man, dressed in traditional Quaker garb was chosen purposely to reflect the "Quaker" faith and its values of honesty, integrity, purityandis a paternal archetype conveying old-fashioned goodness and shrewdness A trustworthy, dependable, conservative personality might reflect characteristics valued in a financial advisor, a lawn service, or even a car Quaker Oats 1877
How do you feel about these brands? What’s their personality?
5 Major Brand Personalities Sincerity: Down-to-earth, family oriented, genuine, old-fashioned. similar to one that exists with a well-liked and respected member of the family. E.g. Kodak Excitement: Spirited, young, up-to-date, outgoing. E.g. Competence: Accomplished, influential, competent - relationship similar to one with a person whom you respect for their accomplishments, such as a teacher, minister or business leader. E.g. Hewlett-Packard, Sophistication: Pretentious, wealthy, condescending: relationship similar to one with a powerful boss or a rich relative. Ruggedness: Athletic and outdoorsy. E.g. Head.
Brand Relations • The relationship between the brand-as-person and the customer, - analogous to relationship between two people. • A brand's personality must reflect the perceptions, motivations, and values of its targeted customers One important relationship for many brands is friendship. • Characterized by trust, dependability, understanding, and caring • A friend is there for you, treats you with respect, is comfortable, is someone you like, and is an enjoyable person with whom to spend time.
Dodge Neon Your friend
Nokia: A Trusted Friend Motorola Intelligence everywhere "We call this human technology"
Respect Segment "My job is to help you get accepted." "You have good taste." Intimidated segment "Are you ready for me, or will you spend more than you can afford?” "If you don't like the conditions, get another card." "I'm so well known and established that I can do what I want." "If I were going to dinner, I would not include you in the party."
What Creates a Brand Personality? • Packaging, advertising, marketing activities • Consumers’ experience with brand • The creation and communication of a distinctive brand personality is one way marketers can make a product stand out from the competition
The Logo as a Face when you see the same logo time and time again, it becomes familiar, like a familiar human face you experience a sense of recognition, "Hey, I've seen you, I know you
BRAND EQUITY 1. the total value of a brand as a separable asset 2. a measure of the strength of consumers’ attachment to a brand 3. The strength of the positive associations and beliefs the consumer has about the brand
Lifestyle Components People Product Setting
Products are the building blocks of lifestyles • consumers choose particular products and services and activities over others because they are associated with a certain lifestyles • people use products to define lifestyles • For this reason marketing strategies try to position a product by fitting it into an existing pattern of consumption or setting
Integrating Products into Consumer Lifestyles • This ad illustrates the way that products like cars are tightly integrated into consumers’ lifestyles, along with leisure activities, travel, music, and so on.
Life Style Marketing people of similar social and economic circumstances share common lifestyles and patterns of consumption. Lifestyle marketing recognises that people sort themselves into groups based on the things they like to do Lifestyle marketing looks at patterns of behaviour to understand how they make their choices in a variety of product categories - in context
Products are used in desirable social settings or contexts marketing strategies try to position a product by fitting it into an existing pattern of consumption What products go with this lifestyle?
Product Complementarity • An important part of lifestyle marketing is to identify the set of products and services that go together • different products are related to each other symbolically • these sets of products, termed consumption constellations • A cluster of complementary products, specific brands, and/or consumption activities used to construct, signify, and/or perform a social role” A Consumption Constellation for the Yuppie Lifestyle
By choosing distinctive product groupings laden with symbolic meaning, consumers communicate their affiliation with a positively valued, or aspirational, lifestyle. • From this perspective, the meaning of a product depends on the context in which it is displayed or used • Consumers buy on the basis of product complementarity • Marketer should understand consumers' cross-category associations
Why is Knowledge about lifestyles is important for Marketers? • defining the target market (beyond demographics) • new product development, • cross-merchandising • promotional and media strategies • creating a new view of the market • better communicating product attributes/benefits - to match a person's lifestyle. • reaching consumers
Psychographics • the use of psychological, sociological and anthropological factors to construct market segments • based on differences in choices of consumption activities • Demographic information tells us WHO buys • Psychographics tells us WHY they buy
Activities, Interests and Opinions (AIO) • Psychographic segmentation groups consumers according to their lifestyles • activities, interests and opinions are one way of measuring people’s lifestyles • Lifestyle is then boiled down by discovering • how people spend their time. • what they find interesting and important and • how they view themselves and the world around them
The pictures at the right depict two very different “ideal” vacations. • How can psychographic segmentation help identify target markets for each type of vacation?
VALS (Values and Lifestyles) • categorizes consumers into 8 mutually exclusive groups based on their psychographics and several key income related demographics. • highlights factors that motivate consumer buying behavior. • The primary VALS type represents your dominant approach to life. The secondary classification represents a particular emphasis you give to your dominant approach. • http://www.sric-bi.com/VALS/presurvey.shtml
Use VALS to: • Identify WHO to target • Uncover WHAT your target group buys and does • Locate WHERE concentrations of your target group lives • Identify HOW best to communicate with your target group • Gain insight into WHY the target group acts the way it does • VALS has been applied to: • New product/service design • Marketing and communications • - Targeting- Product positioning- Focus group screening- Promotion planning- Advertising • Media Planning • On-line advertising design and implementation