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Week 7 Personality. Personality. What is personality? Personality the relatively enduring characteristics that differentiate people-those behaviors that makes each individual unique. Psychoanalytic Approaches. Psychoanalytic theory

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slide1

Week 7Personality

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

personality
Personality
  • What is personality?
  • Personality
    • the relatively enduring characteristics that differentiate people-those behaviors that makes each individual unique

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

psychoanalytic approaches
Psychoanalytic Approaches
  • Psychoanalytic theory
    • Freud’s theory that unconscious forces act as determinants of personality
  • Unconscious
    • a part of the personality of which a person is not aware, and which is a potential determinant of behavior

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

structuring personality
Structuring Personality
  • Id
      • the raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality, whose sole purpose is to reduce tension created by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses
    • Libido
      • the “psychic energy” that fuels the primary drives
    • “Pleasure Principle”
      • immediate reduction of tension, maximization of satisfaction

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

structuring personality1
Structuring Personality
  • Ego
      • the part of the personality that provides a buffer between the id and the outside world
    • “Reality Principle”
      • instinctual energy is restrained in order to maintain the safety of the individual and help integrate the person into society

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

structuring personality2
Structuring Personality
  • Superego
      • the final personality structure to develop that represents the rights and wrongs of society as handed down by a persona’s parents, teachers, and other important figures
    • conscience
      • prevents us from doing morally bad things
    • ego-ideal
      • motivates us to do what is morally proper

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

slide10

Freud’s stages

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

developing personality a stage approach
Developing Personality: A Stage Approach
  • Oral Stage
    • a stage from birth to 12-18 months, in which an infant’s center of pleasure is the mouth
    • interested in oral gratification from sucking, eating, mouthing, biting

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

developing personality a stage approach1
Developing Personality: A Stage Approach
  • Anal Stage
    • a stage from 12-18 months to 3 years of age, in which a child’s pleasure is centered on the anus
    • gratification from expelling and withholding feces; coming to terms with society’s controls relating to toilet training

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

developing personality a stage approach2
Developing Personality: A Stage Approach
  • Phallic Stage
    • a period beginning around age 3 during which a child’s interest focuses on the genitals
    • Oedipal conflict
      • a child’s sexual interest in his or her opposite-sex parent, typically resolved through identification with the same-sex parent

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

developing personality a stage approach3
Developing Personality: A Stage Approach
  • Latency Period
    • the period between the phallic stage and puberty during which children’s sexual concerns are temporarily put aside
    • 5-6 years to adolescence

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

developing personality a stage approach4
Developing Personality: A Stage Approach
  • Genital Stage
    • the period from puberty until death, marked by mature sexual behavior
    • reemergence of sexual interests and establishment of mature sexual relationships

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

developing personality a stage approach5
Developing Personality: A Stage Approach
  • Fixation
    • personality traits characteristic of an earlier stage of development due to an unresolved conflict stemming from the earlier period

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

defense mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms
  • Defense mechanisms
    • unconscious strategies that people use to reduce anxiety by concealing the source from themselves and others

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

defense mechanisms1
Defense Mechanisms
  • Repression
    • unacceptable or unpleasant impulses are pushed back into the unconscious
  • Regression
    • people behave as if they were at an earlier stage of development

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

defense mechanisms2
Defense Mechanisms
  • Displacement
    • the expression of an unwanted feeling or thought is redirected from a more threatening, powerful person to a weaker one
  • Rationalization
    • a distortion of reality in which a person justifies what happens

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

defense mechanisms3
Defense Mechanisms
  • Denial
    • refusal to accept or acknowledge an anxiety-producing piece of information
  • Projection
    • attributing unwanted impulses to someone else
  • Sublimation
    • diversion of unwanted impulses into socially approved thoughts, feelings, or behaviors

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

the neo freudian psychoanalysts
The Neo-Freudian Psychoanalysts
  • Jung’s “collective unconscious”
      • a set of influences we inherit from our own particular ancestors, the whole human race, and even animal ancestors from the distant past
  • Adler’s “inferiority complex”
      • a situation in which adults have not been able to overcome the feelings of inferiority that they developed as children

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

trait approaches
Trait Approaches
  • Trait theory
    • a model of personality that seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality
  • Traits
    • enduring dimensions of personality characteristics along which people differ

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

trait approaches1
Trait Approaches
  • Allport’s trait theory
    • cardinal traits
      • a single characteristic that directs most of a person’s activities
    • central trait
      • the major characteristics of the individual
    • secondary traits
      • characteristics that affect behavior in fewer situations

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

trait approaches2
Trait Approaches
  • Cattell
    • factor analysis
      • a method of summarizing the relationships among a large number of variables into fewer, more general patterns
    • surface traits
      • clusters of related behaviors
    • source traits
      • represent the basic dimensions of personality

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

trait approaches3
Trait Approaches
  • Eysenck
    • extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism
  • The “Big Five”
      • extraversion
      • agreeableness
      • conscientiousness
      • neuroticism (emotional stability)
      • openness to experience

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

slide29

Big 5

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

learning approaches
Learning Approaches
  • Cognitive-Social approaches to personality
    • emphasizes the influence of a person’s cognitions in determining personality
  • Reciprocal determinism
    • the way in which the interaction of environment, behavior, and individual ultimately causes people to behave as they do

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

slide34

Sheldon’s body types

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

biological and evolutionary approaches
Biological and Evolutionary Approaches
  • Biological and evolutionary approaches to personality
    • the theory that suggests that important components of personality are inherited
  • Temperament
    • a basic, innate disposition that emerges early in life

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

humanistic approaches
Humanistic Approaches
  • Humanistic approaches to personality
    • the theory that emphasizes people’s basic goodness and their tendency to grow to higher levels of functioning
  • Self-actualization
    • a state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

slide38

Maslow

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

slide39

Maslow

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

assessing personality
Assessing Personality
  • Psychological Tests
    • standard measures devised to assess behavior objectively and used by psychologists to help people make decisions about their lives and understand more about themselves

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

self report measures of personality
Self-Report Measures of Personality
  • Self-Report measures
    • a method of gathering data about people by asking them questions about a sample of their behavior
  • MMPI-2
    • a test used to identify people with psychological difficulties as well as predicting a variety of other behaviors

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

projective methods
Projective Methods
  • Projective personality test
    • a test in which a person is shown an ambiguous stimulus and asked to describe it or tell a story about it
  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    • a test consisting of a series of pictures about which a person is asked to write a story

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)

behavioral assessment
Behavioral Assessment
  • Behavioral assessment
    • direct measures of an individual’s behavior used to describe characteristics indicative of personality

(Feldman, 1999; Kohn & Kohn, 1998; Richardson, 1999)