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“IF PONYS RODE MEN AND IF GRASS ATE THE COWS” PowerPoint Presentation
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“IF PONYS RODE MEN AND IF GRASS ATE THE COWS”

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“IF PONYS RODE MEN AND IF GRASS ATE THE COWS”

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  1. “IF PONYS RODE MEN AND IF GRASS ATE THE COWS” THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

  2. Setting The Stage • The Colonial Population in 1770 was 2,148,400 (est.) • The most populous states were Va., Penn., Mass. • The population in Britain was 6.4 million

  3. Comparing Armies • British Army • 50,000 men worldwide (hired 30,000 more mercenaries) • Loyalists provided between 32,000-50,000 men (1,000 blacks) and 13,000 Native Americans • American Army • Max size 184,000-250,000 (9%) Continentals and militia served although never more than 90,000 in any given year (5,000 Blacks) • Washington never commanded more than 17,500 men

  4. Reason Men Served • Political Values • Opportunity • Paycheck • Family/Community Pressure • Revenge/Chance to Fight Old Enemies • Adventure

  5. Leadership • British • “Gentlemen’s Approach”-Howe • “Oppressor”-Tarleton • American • Asymmetric-Washington • Guerilla-Greene

  6. Lexington and Concord • April 19, 1775 • 70 Americans v 700 British at Lex • 8 KIA, 10 WIA • Concord Brits take 14 WIA • Another 250 Brits wounded on march back • Led to calling up 13,600 Militia from all of new England on April 23 • May 10 Americans under Arnold and Allen take Ticonderoga on May 10 • Washington appointed Commander-in-Chief on June 15

  7. Battle of Bunker Hill • July 15, 1775 • 2,500-4,000 of 10,000 available on Continental side v. 6,500 British troops. • Americans withstood three charges before retreating • American casualties-400-500 • British casualties-1,000

  8. Northern Campaign • July 6, 1775-Americans react to dismissal of “Olive Branch Petition” • March4-17, 1776, Dorchester Heights forces British evacuation of Boston • May 2, 1776-France promises $1 Million Francs. • June-July 1776-British occupy New York with 30 SotL, 1,200 cannon, and 30,000 soldiers commanded by Gen Wm. Howe • Aug 27-29-Battles of Long Island and Brooklyn Heights-barely manages evacuation • Washington suffers more defeats at Harlem Heights and White Plains, flees into New Jersey by October with the loss of Ft. Washington and 100 canon. Washington has lost over 3,000 men.

  9. Battle of Saratoga • June 17, 1777_Burgoyne leaves Canada with 7,700 troops and 7,000 Indian allies, Take Ft. Ticonderoga by July 6. Howe sails to take Philadelphia. In one month Burgoyne travels 23 miles by August 1, Natives leave. • August 16-battle of Bennington-800 Brit Mercenaries surrender. • Oct. 7-5,700 British fight American, lose 600 compared to 150 Americans • 10 days later surrenders entire force • France recognizes U.S. and declares war on Britain on Feb 6, 1778

  10. Central Campaign • By Dec. 11, 1776 Washington retreats to Penn. • Dec. 24 attacks Trenton with 2,500 men against 1,500 Hessians-American casualties 6 • Jan 3-Washington takes Princeton, goes into winter quarters in Morristown with about 1,000 men-9,000 arrive by Spring. • Sept. 9-11, 1777, Washington loses Battle of Brandywine Creek trying to defend Philadelphia • Dec. Washington sets up winter quarters at Valley Forge. • New Brit Gen Clinton begins supporting native terror campaign in NY in May 1778-continues until Aug. 1779 when Americans destroy Iroquois villages. • June 27-Clinton and Washington meet at Battle of Monmouth.

  11. Southern Campaign • Sept 3-Oct 28, 1779-British take Savannah • April 8-May 6, 1780-8,000 Brit troops take Charleston, American lose 5,400 men, worst loss of the war. British lose 225. • Aug 16-American losses bad at first • Jan 17, 1781-Battle of Cowpens • March 13, 1781-Battle of Gilford Courthouse

  12. Battle of Yorktown • Sept. 5-8, 1781, Naval battle • Sept. 17-siege begins • Oct 19-Cornwallis surrenders • Oct 24-Clinton arrives too late with 7,000 reinforcements. • Jan 1, 1782, Loyalists begin leaving homes • Brits begin evacuating states and Americans make an attack against wrong tribe. • After a year of negotiating authorized by Parliament, America and Britain sign peace treaty on Sept. 4, 1783

  13. Costs • American casualties-4,435 KIA (2%), 6.188 WIA (3%) • No clear figures on British dead